HUMAN RIGHTS: Definition, Aspects, Types, Importance, Promotion and Abuse

What is a human right?

-Are those accepted principles of fairness and justice that all people deserve. Or are claims individual or a group of people against the state.


-Are basic things that all human beings are entitled to and which nobody should interfere with such as right include right to life , ownership of property, education, marriage e.c.t    


There are two types of aspects of human rights there are: –

  1. Legal rights
  2. Moral rights


Are those rights which are named and defined in the constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania and International conversion.


Are those rights which are recognized by society by way of conscience. They are agreed by society to be desirable e.g. Religious matters.


There are three types of human rights there are: –

  1. Civic and political rights
  2. Economic social and cultural rights
  3. Environmental and developmental  


  • Are these right that very person must enjoy
  • The right to life, liberty, and security of a person
  • Freedom from slavery
  • Freedom from torture cruelly inhuman degrading treatment or punishment.
  • Equality before the law
  • To be tried before a competent or skilled lawyer.
  • To be considered innocent until proved guilt
  • To be given a fair and public hearing
  • Not to be arrested determined or exited unfairly
  • Freedom of movement in his or her country.
  • To live in any country including his own and to return to it when she/he likes to To be protected by the family society and the state.
  • To possess property alone
  • Freedom of thought consciousness and religion
  • Freedom to have one’s opinions and express oneself.
  • Freedom to assemble peacefully to associate with others freely.


Economically, socially and culturally every person must enjoy the following rights

  • Right to social security and free development of his or her personality.
  • The right to work and choose employment
  • The right to equal pay for equal work
  • The right to just and favorable remuneration
  • The right to form and join a trade union
  • The right to rest and leisure including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay.
  • The right to a standard of living sufficient for the health and well being i.e. food, clothing, housing, medical care, and others.
  • The right to education whether born in or out of wedlock to enjoy the same social protection.
  • For parents to choose the kind of education shall give to their children.


Environmental and developmental 

are the rights that people have to live in an environment that is clean and free from pollution. People also have a right to wealth and natural resources, self-determination, and peace. 

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Human right is very important in our society because

  1. Are foundations of freedom justice peace and liberty
  2. Limit government powers and action against the people
  3. Help people to be aware to take action against traders who violate their rights.
  4. Human right promotes development in their society since it provides equal rights to the people e.g. right to education.


Human rights relate to many aspects of human life. Among these aspects is the promotion of social services in Tanzania there services are provided by the Government and the UN Example:


Tanzania is a member of UNO and promotes both human rights and fundamental freedom in the following ways.

  1. The constitution is based on the universal declaration of human rights.
  2. The right to live is guaranteed individuals person to life no one should take someone’s life.
  3. The right to freedom from slavery, the constitution of Tanzania does not allow any form of slavery.
  4. Freedom from torture or security in human or degrading
  5. The right to be recognized everywhere as a person in front of the law.


What is human rights abuse?

Is the unlawful prevention of a person’s enjoyment of his or her right as outlined in the constitution.

Example of human rights abuse

  • G.M Female Genital Mutilation (women circumcision)
  • Raping of women and children
  • The killing of old people due to bad tradition
  • Women beating from her husband
  • Child labor
  • Forced marriage
  • Prohibiting women from inheritance
  • Corruption
  • Invasion of weak countries by bigger countries
  • Idd Amin Dada vs Tanzania


  • Negligence of the action
  • Ignorance of the society concerned
  • The selfishness of some individuals who consider only their interests.

Parents can abuse the right of their children by;


  1. Denying them education
  2. Not providing basic needs such as food and clothing for their children.
  3. Forcing their children to marry against their wishes, especially at a tender age.
  4. Giving their children severe punishment.



 Society can be abuse individual rights through;


  1. Beating up and killing suspected criminals without giving them a fair trial in a court of law.
  2. Abandoning children in the streets.
  3. Stigmatizing less fortunate members of society such as the disabled and people living with HIV and AIDS.
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  Government can abuse human rights through ;


  1. Making oppressive laws that limit individual rights.
  2. Discriminating against some citizens due to their color, gender, religion, or ethnic origin.
  3. Not including a Bill of Rights in the Constitution.
  4. Not maintaining the rules of law.


Effects of human rights abuse


  1. Conflict among family members and in the community. This leads to unrest and instability in society.
  2. The conflict between citizen and their government. This makes it difficult for the government to enforce law and order.
  3. Citizens are unable to perform their duties and responsibility in peace
  4. Increased crime and poverty in the society.
  5. Oppression of the less fortunate member of the society, for example, workers, maybe underpaid or the poor may be denied justice in a court of law.
  6. Citizens are unable to obtain their basic needs when the right to work is denied or abuse


Ways to combat abuse of human rights

  1. The government has to maintain the rule of law. Where the rule of law is not being maintained, e.g. in countries at war, a lot of human rights abuses are experienced such as the inability to get basic needs.
  2. The government should educate its citizens about their basic rights so that they can claim them when they are denied.
  3. Society has to respect all people, including the sick and the disadvantaged.
  4. The courts of law should enforce the law in a just manner and punish those who abuse the right of others, such as thieves and murderers.
  5. There should be a system of controlling the activities of the government.
  6. The government has to be transparent in its operations.
  7. All people should be treated fairly and equally before the law.



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