Indicators of Social and Economic Development

economic and social development of any country can be measured by the following indicators


1.1.1. Per capita income


This is the average of income of the people in a country and is obtained by dividing the total annual income of the country by the number of people of that country


The formula of calculating the per capita income is NB;

GDP means gross domestic product. GNP means gross national income

Usually per capita income varies from developed countries to the developing countries. In the developed countries their per capita income is higher than in developing countries


For example in 2000 the Tanzania’s per capita income was USD 500 while in USA the per capita income USD 2000


1.1.2. Life expectance


Life expectance refers to the number of years which a person is expecting to live before the life birth day usually in developed countries people live for many years compared to the life span in developing countries this is due to problems like poor diet poor health services lack of security and presence of disease


E .g 1980’s the life expectancy of Tanzanians was above 60years while in UK it was above 90years.

1.1.3. Daily food supply

The amount of food supplied is measured in colonies used by a person per year and the number of meals which a person used to get daily.


Usually in developed countries people use a lot of calories and get free food or free meals per day but in developing countries people obtain a little calories and get just one meal per day this is because in developing countries the supply of food is not sufficient

1.1.4. Mortality rate


This refers to the risk of possibilities of death of people in a given country. Usually in developing countries like Tz the mortality rate is higher compared to developing countries like Britain, Japan and USA

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In developing countries the mortality rate is higher because of poor housing services and presence of diseases.


Therefore if mortality rate is low the life expectance increases and vice versa

1.1.5. Crude death rates


This refers to the number of children who died before the age of 5yrs. In developing countries usually crude death rate is higher compared to developing countries this is due to poor reproductive health services lack of family planning education and poor mortality health services

1.1.6. Literacy rate


Is the ability of a person to be able to read , write and count, therefore literacy rate refers to the number of people who are able to read ,write and count in the country. In developing countries literacy rate is low while in developed countries literacy rate is higher


E .g. Tanzania’s literacy rate is low because many children do not go to school the number of schools are not enough and many people cannot offered the expenses of education as a result the number of illiterate people is increasing.

1.1.7. Energy consumption

The amount of energy used in a country such as electricity fuel, coal and other sources of power depend on the level of development reached by the country. The consumption of energy in developed countries is higher compared to developing countries which is due to the development of the industrial sector science and technology and improvement of living standard


1.1.8. Other indicators of economic and social development

1. The number of people in agriculture centre

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2. The number of patient per doctors

3. The number of student per teacher

4. The rate of population growth

5. The level of science and technology

Melkisedeck Leon Shine

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