The central government of United Republic of Tanzania

1.1. Meaning and structure of central government

The central government is a national or state government.

It is concerned with national affairs and has authority over the entire territory of the country. 

1.1.1. The structure of central government

  1. Executive
  2. Judiciary
  3. Legislature

1.1.2.      Reason for separation of the three arms:

They have been separated so as to

  1. Promote transparency and accountability.
  2. Eliminating corruption.
  3. Serve the people better.
  4. Enhance efficiency and smooth operation of the government
  5. Make co ordination and administration easy.
  6. Facilitate division of labor rules and duties have been separated to reduce concentration of power.
  7. Promote the principle of check and balance to prevent misuse of power.

1.2.    The three arms of the central government

1. The Executive

This is arm responsible for putting law into effect.     

The structure of Executive

     The Executive consist of:

  1. The president.
  2. The cabinet. The president

   The president of the united republic of Tanzania is.

  1. The head of state.
  2. Head of government
  3. The commander chief of armed forces.
  4. Represent Tanzania abroad.
  5. Sign treaties with foreign countries.
  6. Is a symbol of national Unity.
  7. Assents or disapprove parliamentary bills.
  8. Can declare a state of Emergency.
  9. Has special power to give respite to criminals convicted in court.

As a head of government he/she:

  1. Is the chairperson of the Cabinet.
  2. Can dissolve the Parliament.
  3. Take last responsibility for all government and decisions.
  4. Appoint ministers the chief Justice Judges of the high court and court of Appeal, Regional commissioners.        The cabinet

It is the president main advisory organ. It is composed of:

  • The president.
  • Vice president.
  • President of Zanzibar.
  • Prime minister.
  • Ministers
  • Attorney General.

The civil services

This is government services provided by the civil servant or government workers e.g. Regional and District commissioners.

It consists of:

  • Permanent secretaries in the ministries.
  • Commissioners
  • Head of departments in the ministries and directors.

1.2.2. The Legislature

   This is the law making organ of the government.

   It is made up of the national Assembly and president.

The national Assembly of parliament

This is the organ that makes the laws of the country on behalf of Tanzania. It is made up of the following.

  1. Members who represent their constituencies.
  2. Five members who present the House of Representatives of Zanzibar.
  3. Ten members nominated by the president.
  4. Women members who represent the political parties that participate in general election.
  5. The Attorney general who is appointed by the president.

   The president  

   Is said to be part of the parliament in parliamentary terms.

   Is not a member of parliament because he/ she do not participate in parliamentary matters such as:        

            -Signing the bills to become laws during the process of law making.

  • Dissolving the parliament thus national assembly consist of only members of parliament (MPS) and parliament works.

     The difference between national Assembly and the parliament is that when members meet with the president is parliament and National Assembly when it involves the members of parliament. Parliament leader’s officers

     The parliament of United Republic of Tanzania is made up of the following leader’s officers.

  1. The speaker: Is a person in charge of the national Assembly.

The speaker is elected from among members of the parliament.

His or her roles are:

  1. To control the house / parliament.
  2. Overseeing discipline in the parliament
  3. To represent the parliament in all other organs and sitting outside the National Assembly.
    1. The Deputy Speaker
  • She/ he are also elected from among the members of parliament.
  • He / she is assistant to the speaker.
  • He/ she can act as a speaker when the speaker is absent.
    1. The prime Minister
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The prime minister is the head of government business in the parliament. 

  1. The clerk of the National Assembly
  1. He/she is appointed by the president from among lawyers holding high office in the service of the united Republic.
  2. He / she is a chief executive on the administration heads of the National Assembly.
  3. He/ she is responsible for the efficient working of the parliamentary machinery.

Thus, the Clerk is responsible or the efficiency working of the parliamentary machinery. Apart from those officers, there also

  1. The Management/Administrative Committee
  • The Financial and Economic Committee. This deals with financial affairs, it works with the ministry of finance
  • The Political Affairs Committee iv. The Public Accounts committee
  1. The Constitutional and Legal Affairs Committee
  • The Foreign Affairs Committee. This deals with matters concerning foreign affairs. It works with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International relations vii. The Parastatal Organization Committee viii. The social services Commettee ix. The Defence and Security Commettee Function of Parliament

These main functions of parliament are:

  1. Approving money allocated for running the administration of the country.
  2. Overseeing government programmers and plan.
  3. Making laws.
  4. Overseeing the actions of the executive.
  5. Debating issue tabled before it. The Existence of the National Assembly

The life of the National Assembly is 5 years from the time it is addressed by president after the members of the legislature begins by presenting agenda to the speaker office through. The clerk to the National l Assembly.

The item include: bills, national, petitions and questions.

A bill is a proposal for a new laws or for the amendment of an existing law.

A motion is a policy suggestion which has to be transformed into bills before it.

A petition is a call for an official ministerial response to an argent matter of national interest.

A question is a call on ministers to respond to specified matter in their respective ministries.

Sources of bills or agenda items.

Bills or agenda can come from the president, Attorney, General, ministers (ministries). And other members of the parliament except

  • The speaker.
  • Other administrative officials.

   Bills are shortlisted and published in the Government Gazette. Steps in making a Bill a law

  1. The bill is presented by the clerk to members of parliament.

This is the first reading. There is no discussion held on the bill.

  1. The bill is introduced to the members of parliament by the standing committee that is constitutional, legal and public administration.

The bill is discussed and changes or contribution are made.

  1. The bill is debated and approved or rejected by voting.
  2. If the bill has been approved by parliament it is sent to the president for assent. If the president signs it then it becomes on Act or Law. If he/ she disapproves, than it goes back to parliament for further discussion.

Other agenda items such as petition and question are directed to the ministers who in turn respond to them.

1.2.3.         The Judiciary

The judiciary is an organ of an arm of the government / state which interprets the laws and also solved the deputies in the society.

It is required to be free from political pressure and also from two branches. Structure Of The Judiciary

The Tanzania Judiciary stricter has five levels namely.

  1. Primary court
  2. District court.
  3. Resident magistrate court.
  4. High court.
  5. Court of Appeal.
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   All these court deals with matters depending on their complexity. E.g. Madder case. Is a big problem it cannot be discussed / decided by a primary court because it is the lowest level of court which deals with small and fight problem such as conflict among farmers and livestock keepers.

Big cases are decided up on by other court such as the high court and court of Appeal because they are responsible for hearing big cases also hearing cases referred to them by lower court.

1.3. Function Of The Central Government

  1. Interpreting Laws
  2. Enforcing laws made by the parliament
  3. Settling disputes between people and other organs.
  4. championing the wishes,values and aspiration of the citizen.

1.4. Different Between Local And Central Government 




1.       The central government has over all power in the country.

2.       The official of the central government are not very close to the citizen.

3.       In the central government there are president, vice president, prime ministers, ministers, members of parliament and judges.

4.       The central government provides funds for the local government.



1.       The local government powers are limited to certain areas in the country.

2.       The officials are always available to the citizen.

3.       In the local government there are mayors, deputy, mayors, council chairpersons, councilors and village chairperson.

4.       Local government receive fund from the central government.


1.5.    The Central Government Source Of Revenue

The central government gets money from.

  1. Taxes

There are two types of taxes Direct tax and Indirect tax. Direct tax is deducted straight from the person who pays it i.e. income tax deducted from employees’ salaries. In direct tax is usually paid as an amount added to the price of goods and services.


  1. User charges

These are taxes on a service provided to the public e.g. charge on license and in court fees.


  1. Borrowing

The government borrows money through the sale of treasury bills and treasury bonds. It also borrows from outside the country. E.g. from other states or national organizations like the World Bank.


  1. Grants

These are funds that are donated and do not need payment. The government collects these funds through the Tanzanian Revenue Authority and the treasury.

1.6. Central Government Expenditure

The central government spends its money in two ways.

  1. Capital or development expenditure

This money is spent on expenses that do not occur regularly. Examples are money spent on buildings schools, railways and government offices.


  1. Recurrent expenditure

Recurrent expenses have to be paid regularly. For example monthly or annually. Examples are paying civil servants salaries and buying medicine for hospitals

1.7. Participation In Central Government

It is important for a student to participate in central government activities.

  1. Voting if they have the required qualifications
  2. Debating issues of national interest.
  3. Attending community or civic meetings
  4. Paying taxes through purchases of goods and services like books, pens and paying bus fare.
  5. Obeying the laws of the land and reporting those people who do not.
  6. Making proper use of the facilities provided by the government e.g. schools, health centers, and social halls

1.8. Importance Of Citizen Participation In Government Activities 

Citizen’s participation in government activities is important because it helps to;

  1. Ensure that the leaders do not missuse their power.
  2. Keep the government informed on the wishes of society.
  3. Involves citizens in the governing of their country
  4. Brings personal satisfaction.
  5. Protects their rights and promotes the common good.
  6. Improve the quality of life in the communities.

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