Understand the Concept of Government: Definition, structure, types, forms and importance

1.1. Definition of Government

Government is a group of people within the society with the power and authority to perform administration functions i.e Planning, implementing policies and making decisions.

 

OR 

Government is a system or organization machinery of ruling society and can be obtained either through elections, force or hereditary means.

 

1.2.    Types Of Government 

There are mainly two types of government which are

  1. Democratic government
  2. Non-democratic government

1.2.1. Democratic Government

 

A democratic government is a form of government whose political powers determined by popular elections.It takes into consideration the consent of people in decision making and also acquires its legitimacy from the people through free and fair elections.Example of democratic government are government of Tanzania, Kenya and USA

 

1.2.1.1. Characteristics Of Democratic Government

  1. There is separation of power
  2. Rule of law

iii. Free and fair election

  1. Leaders are accountable and responsible to the people
  2. Citizen participation.

1.2.2. Non-Democratic Government (Dictatorial Government)

 

Is a type of government which is not determined by popular elections.The government enter into power through force without majority will or gain people legitimacy.

In most cases non-democratic government result from coupd’etat and manipulation of election process.

 

Therefore Dictatorial government is a system of ruling whereby single person or group of people holds power and determine the political directions.Example of dictatorial government are like those of Adolf Hitler,Benito Mussolini,Mobutu Seseseko and Idd Amin Dada.

1.2.2.1. Characteristics Of Dictatorship Or Non-Democratic Government

 

  • They are not answerable to the people .
  • Those rule are not chosen by the people.
  • Those who are in power make sure that their decision are final.

(iv) Come to power by force.

  • Abuse their power.
  • Do not honor the constitution

(vii)Election are not free and fair

 

1.3. Forms of Government

  1. Republican government

A Republican Government is a form of government whereby head ofthe government is the president.The president is elected by the people and exercises power on behalf of he people.

Example; of republic government are D.R.C, KENYA, UGANDA. Etc

  1. Union government

This form of government is formed when two nations or more join together.The joined government totally surrender their authority/power and sovereignty to the central government or unitary government.

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Example:   the united republic of Tanzania was formed when Tanganyika united with Zanzibar.

The United Kingdom is the union of England, North Ireland,Scotland and Wales.

  1. Monarchy government

This is a form of government whereby power is concentrated in an individual person,such as a  king. Monarchy can be divided into two forms such are 

 

  • Constitutional Monarchy

 

In a constitutional monarchy,a King /Queen heads the state.A king or queen is ceremonial leader.The state does not have any executive power and his/her roles and places are bound under set of rules and convention.The prime minister is the Executive head of the government,democracy and human rights are guaranteed,E.g Britain,Japan and the Netherland.

 

  • Absolute Monarchy

 

The King/Queen exercise state power without being bound by rules,E.g the rules of Saudi Arabia and former King Louis of France.

  1. Federal government

  This is a form of government whereby the joined local governments share some powers at the central government.The governments surrender some of their power to central government while remaining with some authority, for example the Government of India,United States of America and Nigeria.

  1. Totalitarian Government

  

This is a country with only one political party.People are forced to do what the government orders.

Example:Adolf Hilter and Benito Mussolini Government.

 

  1. Communist Government

It is a form of government in a communist society whereby the government owns the means of production. It provides people’s healthcare, education and welfare.

Example:A good example of communist government is the former USSR.

 

  1. An Anarchy Government(NO-Government)

It is a situation whereby there is no government.This can happen after a civil war ina country,whereby the government is destroyed and rival groups are fighting to take it s place. 

 

  1. Revolutionary Government

It is a system of the Government which is formed after a complete overthrow of the existing oppressive government by the majority people who where previously governed and oppressed by it. 

Example Zanzibar Revolution Government.

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  1. Transitional Government

It is a form of government which is created temporarily by the people and mediator in a country to oversee the formation of permanent government through free and fair elections.

1.4. Importance Of The Government

  1. It provides citizens with social services like hearth care, education, and safe water.
  2. The government constructs and maintain infrastructure like roads, schools, buildings and hospitals.
  3. Maintenance of peace and order in the countries is also the rule of the government.
  4. Government initiates and maintains relationship with other countries.
  5. The government collects revenue for the development of the country.
  6. It guides the country by preparing and implementing good policies
  7. Individual rights of citizens are protected by the government

Melkisedeck Leon Shine

Development Expert, Web Designer, Entrepreneur, and Technology Enthusiast.

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