AFRICAN REACTION AGAINST IMPOSITION OF COLONIAL RULE

Despite of colonialists to use different rules/ methods/ tactics or techniques or ways to impose [establish] colonial rule; Still during imposition of colonial rule in Africa, Africans reacted or opposed colonialism because Africans were not ready to be under colonial control that is why Africans imposed different reactions against colonialists.

1.12.1.1. WAYS/ GROUP OF REACTIONS

There were two ways of reaction against imposition of colonial rule and these were;

1. Collaboration [ alliance]

2. Resistance

These two groups of reaction against imposition of colonial rule depended on the following;

1.12.1.2. THE REASON/ NATURE OF AFRICAN REACTION AGAINST COLONIAL RULE

1. The military structure and the strength of the society.

2. The nature of leader ship i.e. strong or weak.

3. The nature of the colonialists i.e. aggressive or friendly.

4. The nature of exploitation and oppression made Africans to use collaboration or resistance.

5. The level of interference in social, political and economic interest made Africans to react or not.
6. The nature of population [African societies] for example the size of the population, unity among the people etc.

Due to the above factors, it caused African societies to impose strong resistance or weak resistance or collaboration.

1.12.2. COLLABORATION/ ALLIANCE

Collaboration was a way of reacting against imposition of colonial rule where by African societies cooperated with Europeans invaders. African societies used the method to oppose colonial rule by welcoming or making cooperation with the colonialists against indigenous [fellow] enemies and conducting treaties so as to get support and preserve their interests against their enemies.

Therefore collaboration simply means, Africans welcomed Europeans in order to get their support. For example Maasai, Buganda and Lozi collaborated with colonialists as the way to avoid their control.

1.12.2.1. THE REASONS WHY SOME AFRICAN SOCIETIES COLLABORATED WITH COLONIALISTS

i. Poor/weak military power

ALSO READ:  BUNYORO RESISTANCE IN UGANDA [1893]

Some societies had poor military power compared to the colonialists; therefore they decided to cooperate with them in the opposing manner.

ii. Poor leadership

Some societies in Africa decided to cooperate with colonialists because they had poor or weak leaders who were not militant confident to fight against colonial rule.

iii. To fight against their fellow Africans.

Some African societies collaborated with colonial rule invaders so as to get assistance to fight their fellow enemies who were strong militarily. For example Sangu, Bena and Yao collaborated with the Germany against Mkwawa of the Hehe.

iv. To get military/ weapon support.

African societies collaborated with colonialists because they wanted to get strong military weapons to defend their territories i.e. NambongoMumia of Wanga and KabakaMutesa collaborated with the British to get strong arms.

v. Fear and to promote peace and harmony.

Some societies in Africa decided to cooperate with colonialists due to the desire of maintenance of peace and harmony and avoiding warfare.

vi. Ignorance.

Ignorance of some Africans especially rulers [leaders] who did not understand the mission [intention] of colonialists through given gifts, fooled and persuaded them to sign bogus treaties. For example chief Mangungo of MsoveroKisola signed a bogus treaty with Karl peters. King Lobengula of shone and Ndebele signed bogus treaties with John Moffat

vii. Natural problems such as calamities/ disaster.
Some societies in Africa suffered a lot with natural calamities such as drought, floods hunger etc which made them weak politically hence collaborating with the colonialists to get relief or assistance. For example the Maasai, the Chagga, the Kikuyu etc.

viii. The role of missionaries:-

They played a great role to soften the African mind by preaching them to be humble and obidient to their masters, this lowered the African temper against colonial rule.

ALSO READ:  ARCHIVES AS SOURCE OF HISTORICAL INFORMATION

1.12.3. RESISTANCE

Resistance is the situation where by Africans fought in order to oppose European invasion or colonial rule.

Or is the opposition against colonial rule or control.

1.12.3.1. FORMS OF RESISTANCE

There are two forms of resistance or reaction against colonial rule employed/ applied by Africans and these are:
1. Active resistance

2. Passive resistance

1.12.3.1.1. ACTIVE RESISTANCE

is the form of resistance where by Africans took arms to fight against colonial rule, or active resistance is the one which Africans wage war to oppose colonial rule by destructing European properties like farms, killing Europeans and so on. Eg of African societies which applied active resistance against colonial systems were: Nyamwezi, under Isike, Hehe under Mkwawa and Yao under Machemba.

WHY SOME SOCIETIES OF AFRICA SUCCEEDED/WERE ABLE TO APPLY ACTIVE RESISTANCE?

BECAUSE;

1. Presence of strong/ good leadership e.g. SamoriToure and Mkwawa.

2. Strong army.
3. Strong unity among the people.

4. Good war techniques.

5. Strong organizations/political systems.

6. Powerful socially and economically.

1.12.3.1.2. PASSIVE RESISTANCE

Is the form of resistance where by Africans did not take arms in opposing colonial rule or cooperating with colonialists.

Or

Passive resistance is unarmed or nonviolence opposition against colonial control by refusing to pay taxes, production of cash crops, denied to work etc. an example of a society which applied passive resistance was Pogoro who refused to involve in colonial activities like cotton picking in southern Tanganyika.

WHY SOME AFRICAN SOCIETIES APPLIED PASSIVE RESISTANCE NOT ACTIVE RESISTANCE?

1. Poor weapons

2. Absence of strong army; presence of weak army made some African societies to afraid to fight.

3. Weak leadership.

4. Poor unity among the people.

5. Presence of natural calamities for example floods, droughts.

ALSO READ:  THE CHAGA RESISTANCE AGAINST COLONIAL RULE1892

6. Weak social and political organizations.

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