Agents of industrial capitalism and Colonialism in Africa






  • Traders +



They were Europeans who mainly arrived in African societies in the 19th C to spread Christian religion some came in Africa in 18th c. Example of Missionaries in Africa.

  • luduring krapf
  • Johan Rebman
  • Bishop Tozer
  • Jacob Erhard
  • living stone
  • John smith Moffat
  • Bartholomew kroof Activities of the Missionaries.


  1. Spread of Christianity by building churches and mission
  2. Introducing western education by building schools. They taught Africans writing, reading and counting.
  3. They participated in the abolition of slave
  4. They studied African
  5. They introduced cash crops in African






Explorers were European who came to Africa to collect information and obtain knowledge over geographical areas i.e. Lakes, rivers and Mountains Example of explorers


  • Richard Burton
  • Jon Hanning Speke
  • James Grant
  • Samuel Baker
  • Ludwig Krapf
  • David living stone
  • Henry Morton Stanley
  • De Brazza
  • Mungo park – in west Africa
  • Heinrich Barth Activities


  1. They collected valuable information about Africa.
  2. Attracted the Europeans to come to sell manufactured goods.
  3. They used as interpreters and advisers of the African kings/chiefs.
  4. Some explorers urged European industrial countries to come and colonize
  5. Search sources of raw materials and areas for


1.1.3. TRADERS


They came in order to find raw materials and areas for investments. Examples of trade companies in East Africa;

  • The British African Association formed by William Macknon. Later was given Charter and it was known as Imperial British East Africa (IBEACO) in Kenya and Uganda in 1888.


  • The Livingstone Company formed by Scottish trader James Steven in 1884.


  • Germany East African Company (G.E.A.Co) formed by Dr. Carl Peters in Tanganyika in Companies in West Africa.


  • The Sierra Leone Company – it was established at Freetown Harbor.


  • The Royal Niger Company under George Goldie. Central Africa – Trade companies


  • British South Africa Company (BSACO) formed in 1870’s under Cecil Head quarters in Cape Town.


  • The African international


  • formed by King Leopard II in 1876.


  • It traded in Congo basin. Activities of traders were;


  • They carried out trade by exchanging goods such as guns, drinks and clothes for ivory and


  • Signed treaties with local


  • Some Companies administered the colonies after 1885


  • Find raw materials and areas for


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