1.1.1. ECONOMIC EFFECTS Emergence of rich class.


Since African people engaged in trade activities and acquired enough profit; a class of rich merchants emerged among them. In East Africa the class of rich people included chief Kivoi of Kamba and Nganyo of Giriama in Kenya, Mirambo and Nyungu ya mawe of Nyamwezi in Tanzania. Exposed Africa towards economies.


Africa was integrated in the world economy through supplying commodities which were in great demands by the outside world. Exploitation of Africa resources.


The contact involved the exploitation of human resources by taking Africans away as slaves and some commodities such as Ivory, Gold and animals skins were taken away. Decline of local industries.


The consumers’ behaviour changed from buying local mode commodities to buy foreign commodities such as cotton clothes and food utensils. Loss of manpower.


Example; slave trade in Africa decreased the manpower because traders captured the able bodied people who were essential for production; the aged, weak and children were left behind while they could not manage to produce at large quantity. Introduction of new crops.


These crops were very useful to African because they provided food stuffs as well as cash crops such as coconut, palms, rice, millet, wheat, cloves, sugarcane etc. Introduction of money economy.


In East Africa coastal cities coins were minted and used as the medium of exchange therefore the use of currency replaced barter trade system.

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By 15th century various items were produced in Africa and village communities were transforming from simple to complex societies. Many towns developed due to arts and crafts; the art of writing navigation and money handling was also introduced.




  1. Emergence of Swahili language and
  2. Rise and growth of Islamic
  3. Spread of Islamic religion (Qur’an and Islamic laws).
  4. Growth of towns and cities such as Mombasa, Kilwa, Pemba, Sofala and Mogadishu.
  5. Emergence of mullatos due to
  6. Rise of walfare and depopulation due to capturing of slaves.


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