EVOLUTION OF MAN, TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT

 

 

1.1. Evolution of Man

Is the gradual changes development of plants and animals from a simple form to a more complex form. This change leads to existence0f plants and animals that are different from the original plants and animals.

 

1.2. The theory of evolution of man.

The theory of evolution tries to explain the origin of man by describing the the changes that our ancestors underwent until they were  like modern man.

 

There are two theories which attempt to explain the origin of man.

  • The Theory Of Creation
  • The Theory Of Evolution Of Man

 

1.3. THE THEORY OF CREATION

 

This theory explains that there is super natural power that creates everything.

 

This super natural power is God. Refer from the Holy Bible and Qur’an e.g from Biblical knowledge (Genesis chapter 1:26) it says that : – God created man by using soil, at first they created a man and then later a woman.

 

These two creatures established their relationship and this marked the beginning of human family.

1.4. THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION OF MAN

 

The theory of evolution of man was proposed by an English man known as Charles Darwin

(1809 – 1882)

 

The theory says that: – man’s species has been changing gradually from lower stage to better stage due to environment.

 

  • Changing goes hand in hand with improvement of methods of obtaining food, cloth and
  • The gradual change of man is called evolution. The first man belong to the family of primates which included Ape, Gorilla, Monkey and Chimpanzee.
  • These animals lived in the forest walking on four limbs and their bodies covered with
  • Because of environmental changes and diminishing of forests, they started to live in open
  • Environment forced them to adopt new way of
  • The forelimbs instead of walking become special for tool making and
  • Forelimbs become free from
  • The walking is known as Bi – pedalism

 

1.5. STAGES OF MAN’S EVOLUTION

1.5.1. PRIMATES

 

(Ape, Gorilla, Monkey, Chimpanzee)

 

1.5.1.1. Characteristics

 

  1. Their bodies were covered with lots of
  2. They walked on four limbs
  3. They lived in dense
  4. They had poorly mental
  5. They totally depended on nature ate raw food

 

1.5.2. AUSTRALOPITHECUS AFRICAN FAMILY

 

This stage started about 12million years ago (B.C) when primates changed to near man. This stage divided into two

  1. Zinjanthropus
  2. Homo habilis

 

1.5.2.1. Zinjanthropus

 

In this stage:

 

  1. Fore limbs were free from
  2. Hind limbs were used for standing and body
  3. Man started to design, make and use
  4. Man become

 

1.5.2.2. Homo habilis

 

  • It lived between 1,500,000 and 750,000 BC.

 

  • Homohabilis become more skillful man, because was systematic tools

 

  • Homohabilis believed to be the direct ancestor of modern

 

  • He had bigger brain and he was more systematic tool

 

  • The skull of those creatures were discovered at Olduvai Gorge and omo in Eastern and Rudolf in Kenya.

 

1.5.3. Homo Erectus

 

  • Man was fully moving
  • He become more skillful tools maker than
  • It’s fossils have been dug up in Olorgesaille and near Lake Turkana in the Kenya , Olduvai gorge in Tanzania.
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1.5.4. Homo Sapiens

Homo sapiens is a modern man.

 

Homo sapiens is believed to have evolved into Homo sapiens sapiens about 50,000 years ago. This man has a large brain and great intelligence.

 

1.5.4.1. Characteristics

 

  • He is a true man of today
  • Has a large brain in size
  • Has less thick jaws
  • He was highly skillful man
  • He made tools by using stones and

 

NB: the theory of evolution has been supported by Archaeologist Dr.Leakey in Olduvai Gorge in 1959

 

1.6. Basic characteristics of human evolution

 

  1. Development of man’s ability to design, make and use
  2. Ability of man to walk on two (Bi-pedalism)
  3. Ability of man to
  4. Ability of man to domesticate plants and

 

 

 

1.7. Stone age

Age – Is a period based on man’s economic activities and type of the tools used . eg , Stone age , Iron age ,Science technology age etc.

 

Stone age: This is historical period in which man made and used stone tools. Stone age is divided into three ages

  1. Early or Old stone
  2. Middle stone
  3. Late or new stone age

 

1.7.1. EARLY OR OLD STONE AGE

 

This is the first period of stone age. It existed between 1,750,000 B.C and 750,000 B.C Zinjanthropus- was the only man existed in this period.

  • the early stone tools were pebbles and

 

Man used these tool for

  • killing and skinning animal
  • digging up roots.
  • Cutting tree
  • For

 

Man obtained his food by hunting and gathering

 

In this period man had low ability to control his environment.

 

1.7.1.1. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF EARLY OR OLD STONE AGE

 

In East Africa stone age sites are found at Olorgasaille, Nsongezi and Olduvai.

 

  1. Man lived primitive life depending on
  2. Man made and use crude (poor)
  3. Man lived by hunting and gathering.
  4. Man ate raw food e meat
  5. Man walked up
  6. Man lived in
  7. Man did not wear

 

1.7.2. MIDDLE STONE AGE

 

This stage covered the period between 750,000BC to 50,000 BC. This period man improved his stone tools.

Tools were -smaller,sharper and easier to handle.

 

Tools were spear, Arrows, Needles, Stone picks, Knives etc. These tools were used for

  • Digging up
  • Killing and skinning
  • Cuttings & chopping.

 

 

1.8. THE DISCOVERY OF FIRE

 

How man discovered fire?

 

  • Fire was discovered by man who was scratching pieces of wood using his
  • The more he continued scratching, the pieces of wood got heat the smoke come out, the scratch caused friction of scratched wood and led to emission of

 

1.8.1. IMPORTANCE OF FIRE TO MAN

 

  1. Man started to eat roasted food e meat
  2. Man started to live in cold
  3. Man used fire to clean
  4. Man used fire to provide light at night.
  5. Fire used to kill small animals g rabbit
  6. With fire man increased working hours .
  7. Man use fire to attract
  8. Man used fire for defense from dangerous animals like lion.
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1.8.1.1. GENERAL CHARACTERISTIC OF MIDDLE STONE AGE

 

  1. Man discovered
  2. Man developed some religious
  3. Man started to live complex
  4. Man’s main occupation were: –

 

  • Hunting and gathering
  • Sedentary/ nomadic life

 

1.8.2. THE LATE STONE AGE (NEW STONE AGE)

 

In East Africa, late stone age started from around 50,000 BC to the first millennium AD.

 

  • In this stage man used better tools compared to the previous stone
  • Tools become more sharper and smaller in
  • Tools were stone exes, blades, spears, arrows,
  • Man started permanent

 

The tools were still largely made of stone but they were far better than those of earlier periods. This period marked the beginning of settled communities.

  • In areas such as Kondoa Irangi, paintings and drawings in the carves proved this
  • The paintings and drawings show the shape of tools used and animal

 

1.8.2.1. Characteristics of the late stone age

  1. Man used better tools compare to the previous
  2. Man started to domesticated plant and
  3. Man become food
  4. Increase of
  5. It was beginning of settled communities and
  6. This period marked to be primarily on division of labour.

 

Example: women become child bearers and cares while man for protecting the families and hunting

 

Informal education started in this period.

 

 

1.8.3. IRON AGE

 

  • Iron age is believed to have started during the first millennium D.
  • This was the period when man made and used Iron
  • The discovery and use of iron improved man’s standard of
  • Iron tools were discovered about 3000 years
  • The first people to make and use iron tools in Africa were the people of Ethiopia and
  • Iron skills and knowledge were not uniform or the same in
  • The first important towns for iron smelting were
    • Meroe in Sudan
    • Axum in Ethiopia
    • Nok area in West Africa
  • In East Africa, it is believed that man started to use iron from the first millennium D

 

E.g. Iron discovered earlier in Engaruka, Uvinza, Karagwe, Ugweno and Western shores of lake Victoria.

 

  • Iron tools included iron spears,arrows, Axes, Hoes etc
  • Iron technology helped early African societies to
    • Produce and use iron
    • To produce better weapons for

 

1.8.3.1. THE RESULT OF USING IRON TOOLS

 

  1. It led to increase in food Man could now clear his areas for cultivation.
  2. Increase in population due to more
  3. There was emergence of specialization e. Iron workers (black smiths) and food producers.
  4. It led to the emergence of complex villages / development of political organization as kingdom and states.
  5. Tools were highly improved and more efficient,
  6. There was expansion of trade relation (expansion of trade).

 

Melkisedeck Leon Shine

Development Expert, Web Designer, Entrepreneur, and Technology Enthusiast.

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