Is the person who is illegally owned and controlled by another person and is forced to work for them.
Is the act of owning and using slaves.
Slave trade: –
Is the activity of buying and selling human beings like other commodities. The main results of African contact with external world through trade was the;
- Rise of slave trade
Slave trade in East Africa began after the arrival of Portuguese in 15th Century up to 1873 during the Sayyid Barghash treaty or free treaty.
- The Oman Arabs who were ruling the East African coast at the time introduced clove plantations in Zanzibar and These plantations required large numbers of labors to tend to them.
- There was also a high demand for slave labor for the French sugar plantations in Mauritius and Reunion Island. Initially, the French mostly depended on the area around present-day Mozambique for slaves, but by the 1770s the demand exceeded supply. Hence, the French came further north, to East Africa, in search of slaves.
- Slaves were needed as porters. They ferried goods such as ivory and gold from interior of Africa to the This was important for the ivory trade, especially to the American, Indian and British traders who took part in it.
- Portuguese slave traders supplied slaves to the Portuguese coffee and sugar plantations in In the first half of the 18th century, the Portuguese expanded their plantations. As a result, their sources of slaves in West Africa and Mozambique became inadequate, so they came to East Africa.
- Slaves were in great demand as domestic workers and soldiers in the Muslims nation The Quran forbids Muslims from enslaving other Muslims. Thus, the slaves had to come from non-Muslim regions such as the interior of East Africa. There were major slave markets in Zanzibar, Bagamoyo, Pemba, Kilwa, Mikindani and Mombasa.
There were the characteristics which prevailed during slave trade.
- There were several human torture and
- Humiliation and dehumanization of the
- Slave were chained and forced to carry heavy loads like salt, ivory and copper.
- They were brutally whipped by their
- They were blended like animals. Those who were unfit were killed or left to die on the
The trade emerged up to its maximum stage after growth or demand of labors in big plantations opened by the capitalist. In the 2nd half of 18th century slave trade was boosted by the French demand of labors in the Mauritius and Re-union Islands; these were their colonials in which sugar plantations were established.
There were three stages in the development of slave trade in Indian ocean sea board.
- The first stage was dominated by the Portuguese who were shipping slave from Mozambique to Brazil in 18th
- The second was dominated by the Dutch from Holland and French who had opened the coffee and sugar plantations in Mauritius and Re-union especially in 1770.
- The third was due to the introduction of cloves plantations in Zanzibar in the early of 19th
- The great demand for cloves in the world market led to the expansion of cloves plantations which also increased the need for slaves.
- Slaves were needed for domestic and agricultural works in the Arabs countries in Asia. Due to above reasons the slave traders opened up slave trading centers (stations) such as Tabora, Ujiji, Kotakota, Chikole and
- The expansion of slave trade led to the opening up of market for slave activities. These markets in East Africa included Zanzibar which was the biggest market; others were Kilwa, Bagamoyo, Mombasa and Pemba.
The organization of slave trade in East Africa in 19th century depended much on the factors which were:
- Question of capital to buy Ivory and slaves. At the beginning the Indian merchants called “Banyans” based in Zanzibar supplied capital example cloth was used to buy Ivory and
- Organization of The famous traders who organized caravans were Tippu tippu between the East coast and present day Congo Kinshasa, Mlozi in Belgian, Rumaliza in Ujiji Kigoma and Msiri in urea country present day Zambia.
- The involvement of local rulers in the slave and ivory trade. Nyungu ya mawe, Isike and Mirambo among the Nyamwezi, Kabaka of Uganda, Mkwawa of wahehe, Machemba of
184.108.40.206. COMMODITIES EXCHANGED
- From interior to the coast – Ivory and slaves, animal skins, minerals.
- From the coast to the interior caravans brought clothes, salts wine, glass ware beads and
Slaves were obtained through various ways:
- Through raiding village and capturing
- Through selling prisoners of war obtained from local civil wars.
- Through selling
- Through selling of domestic
- Through ways of laying and ambush.
- Through use of trickery and false pretense.
220.127.116.11. SOCIAL EFFECTS
- Depopulation; many people were taken to work as slaves and others died on the way.
- Insecurity and fear among the people.
- Development of inter-states
- Human torture and suffering
- Hunger due to lack of good in areas were slave trade
18.104.22.168. ECONOMIC EFFECTS
- Killing of economic Agriculture, pastoralism and industries were killed due to lack of manpower.
- Technology stagnation; no innovation was made as all able bodied people were taken as slaves only children and old ones were left behind.
- Underdevelopment of East Africa; slave trade increased dependence on European capitalist generally slave trade had negative effects in East Africa and it created many problems.
There were three main caravan routes during East Africa slave trade.