Trading between Africa and Asia was disturbed by Portuguese invasion along the East Africa coast in the 16th C.
The Portuguese attempted to capture and control Indian Ocean trade, this lead to war between the Portuguese on one hand and the indigenous of East African coast. During this contact the most important countries in western were Spain and Portugal. These countries were included in trade through trading routes to India which passed off through Italy and the Muslims lands of the Middle East. The occurrence of wars in Muslims empire made the trade difficult and more expensive.
The Portuguese by finding routes of the sea wanted to establish trading empire in the East by controlling all trades in Europe. This was made possible by the invention of ships.
Prince Henry the navigator son of King John of Portuguese supported the voyages. They searched routes as resulted into voyages by Bartholomew Diaz in 1487 and Vasco da Gama in 1498.
Vasco da Gama was the first Portuguese to reach East Africa.
- Vasco da Gama reached Africa in 1498 (A.D).
- Bartholomew Diaz reached Africa in
- The need to defeat the Asian trades and rules in their monopoly of the India trade; as usually European countries admired the commodities founded in Africa, so in order to get them they had to contact with African people.
The commodities needed by them were Ivory, tortoise’s shells, cotton, gold and palms.
- Controlling and Exploitation of Gold.
- Need of creating Portuguese Empire in Africa so as to make Africa to be a producer.
- To exploit different resources of Africa. Example gold,
- They wanted to exploit African resources by selling small things to Africans for high price more than they had sold it to them.
- To spread
- To exploit Africa especially East African coastal cities and states e.g. Kilwa, Mombasa, Bagamoyo and
- They desired to establish anti-Muslims
- They search for Pastor John in Ethiopia.
The Portuguese established trade with societies found in the coastal areas. They also created central point where ships could stop on the way to India. After establishing trade the Portuguese obtained items such as ivory, gold, copper and silver; they exchange them with cloth, guns, gunpowder etc.
By 15th C Portuguese succeeded to establish their rule in East Africa. After that the Portuguese built the Fort Jesus in Mombasa which could strengthen their military power thus establishing the effective control over the East Africa coastal areas.
1592 was the built of Fort Jesus.
1698 was the broke down of Fort Jesus.
1499 was the year when Vasco da Gama returned back to Portugal.
There were source of resistance;
- The displaced people joined the resistance, for example Zimba of Zambezi valley and Segeju of Somalia in the Northern Eastern Africa. The constant attack and resistance against Portuguese rule lead to its decline and capture of Fort Jesus of Mombasa in 1698.
- The reaction from the feudal lords and traders who counted to protect their social and economic
- Introduction of crops especially cash crops in Africa g. Sugarcane, yellow maize, cassava, rice, pineapples, potatoes etc.
- Decline of trade; the trade between East Africa, Far East and Middle East was interrupted by the
- Change of major trade
- Exposed Africa to the external world.
- They built several forts, example; Fort Jesus.
- They acted as the introducers of new arts to the indigenous of Africa continent.
The forts built by Portuguese were like;
- Fort Jesus in 1592 in Mombasa.
- Fort at Kilwa.
- Sofala and eliminated caste present day Ghana built in 1482.
- Decline of cities and states.
- Growth of Swahili
- Insecurity and loss of
Also Swahili adapted some new Portuguese words i.e. Mvinyo from word Vincho, Meza Etc.
- They suffered from tropical disease like
- The climate conditions of East African coast were in healthy for the
- Social, culture and religion differences e. Muslim against Christians.
- Loss of trade due to Portuguese taxes and restrictions.
- Harsh treatments and punishment practiced by Portuguese in their
- Role played by Oman to the coastal city people. Hence that capture of fort Jesus marked the end of Portuguese in East Africa around 1700.
The Dutch or Boers came from Holland (Nether land) and firstly settled at the cape in Table Bay in April 1652 under the leadership of Jan Van Riebeek.
- Dutch farmers called themselves – “BOERS”
- When they settled at the cape they called themselves by the name of Afrikaners that meant the “whites of Africa” who developed language known as Afrikaans.
- Dutch had a company known as United Dutch East India company (UDEIC).
- The company had trade with India and other Arabs in Asia
- At the cape they grew vegetables, fruits and kept animals such as
- They had barter trade with Khoikhoi exchanging tobacco and alcohol for the cattle.
- The cape was a good place where ships could stop to be
- The cape had a good climate to support settlement of the (Temperate and cool climate).
- The Dutch wanted to produce vegetable and fruits for the ships which sailed to India.
- The cape could provide fresh water for the
- The cape could be a base of projecting their ships on Atlantic and Indian Ocean.
- A center for caring sick people.
- They took land from Khoikhoi and
- They turned the Khoikhoi into slaves to work for them in
- Dutch raided cattle from the Khoikhoi.
- Dutch settlement led to the introduction of apartheid e.g. Khoikhoi could not get quality education, health services and shelters like the Dutch.
- Unequal exchange led to exploitation of South African
- Intermarriage which led to Mullato population.
- Political structure of the Khoikhoi was
THE MAP SHOW EXPANSION OF DUTCH SETTLEMENT AT THE CAPE
The British first occupation of South Africa was in 1795 when they attacked and defeated the Boers at the Cape.
- There was a peace treaty between the Dutch and the British in 1802 and the Cape was given back to the Dutch in 1803. But in 1806 the British decided to re-occupy the Cape by defeating the Dutch.
- They wanted to protect their ships on the sea route to India.
- It was based on protectionism which the British could protect themselves against ships of
- Area to get raw materials, market and area for
- They wanted to control the trade route on sea water (India & Asia)
- Cape could easy link the British and Western Europe across the Atlantic Ocean.
- They abolished slavery introduced by
- They imposed English language as the official medium of communication.
- Khoikhoi continued to lose their land as the British took it for their
- There was important of manufactured goods from Europe.
- They imposed news way of life.
- Introduction of circuit courts in order to settle disputes between Dutch and the Khoikhoi.
African resistance against the settlement and expansion of the Boers and the British on South Africa.
The African resistance against the whites began during the 17th Century up to the 20th century. Examples of resistances were: –
- These were series of wars carried out by the Xhosa from 1779 Vs Boers – at the great fish
- The first three wars were in 1779, 1789 and 1803.
- The fourth (known as Ndhalambi) happened in 1812
- The fifth (known as Makanda) in 1819.
- The sixth in
- The seventh in 1846>
- The 8th (Malenjin – 1850 – 1853)
- The last resistance by the Xhosa (Mlakaza was an advisor to one of the Xhosa).
The Battle of Vegkop of 19th October 1836.
o Ndebele under Mzilikazi fought Vs the Boers in the Orange Free states.
The Battle of the Blood River on 1th February, 1837.
o ZULU UNDER Dingane fought against Boer settlement in natal.
Anglo Zulu war.
- Zulu under Cetshowayo fought strongly and defeated the British at the Battle of Island
- But later the British suppressed the Zulu during the battle of Ulundi 4th July,