Colonialism is the situation where by one country dominates or rule another country socially, politically, economically and culturally.

Most African countries were colonized by European countries after the Berlin conference except Ethiopia and Liberia.

African countries lost their independence, sovereignty and control over their own matters after being colonized.

Therefore during the imposition of colonial rule it was not easy for colonialists to penetrate into the interior of Africa because;

1. Africans were not ready to be colonized.

2. Africans had their own systems of governance.

3. Africans had their own system of social, political, economic and culture.

4. Africans had a strong leadership and army which strongly protected their state etc. Therefore during the establishment of colonial rule colonialists used the following methods/ tactics.


There are various ways or methods/ tactics employed/ used by colonialist to impose/ establish colonial rule in Africa are as follows;
1. Diplomacy method [signing of treaties]

2. The use of force [military conquest] violence.

3. Alliance or collaboration

4. Administrative technique e.gDirect rule, indirect rule and Assimilation.

5. Ideological methods e.g Introduction of Western Education, Western civilization racism and introduction of Christianity.

6. The use of infrastructures and communication Media.
7. Economic technique e.g Destruction of Industries, this was done by importing ready manufactured goods from abroad e.g clothes, beards, wine.

The techniques/tactics / methods or ways mentioned above were applied or used in imposing/establishing colonialism because; the colonialist find some difficulties since Africans were not ready to be colonized therefore they applied these tactics as follows;


This method was the method of signing bogus treaties done by colonialist with African local rulers which cheated Africans to accept colonial control.

African local leaders signed those treaties without understanding their meaning because they did not know how to read and write. After signing the treaties African local leaders would find their areas colonized. For example; Karl Peters signed many treaties with chief Mangungo of Msovero, Kilosa, Usangara and Uluguru. Stanley signed treaties with king Lobengula of Ndebele [Zimbabwe]The treaties signed by colonialist with African rules were called bogus treaties because


Military conquest was a method/ way of imposing /establishing colonial rule where by colonialist used military force such as army, soldiers, police etc to force Africans to accept colonial rule when the diplomacy method/way failed.

For example Germany used force / violence/ military conquest to force Mkwawa of the Hehe to accept colonial control in his territory.


This was another technique/ way or method of imposing/establishing colonial rule where by colonialists united or cooperated with some societies which had enmity by supporting one side to defeat the other then colonize all together.


Despite of colonialists to use different rules/ methods/ tactics or techniques or ways to impose [establish] colonial rule; Still during imposition of colonial rule in Africa, Africans reacted or opposed colonialism because Africans were not ready to be under colonial control that is why Africans imposed different reactions against colonialists. WAYS/ GROUP OF REACTIONS

There were two ways of reaction against imposition of colonial rule and these were;

1. Collaboration [ alliance]

2. Resistance

These two groups of reaction against imposition of colonial rule depended on the following; THE REASON/ NATURE OF AFRICAN REACTION AGAINST COLONIAL RULE

1. The military structure and the strength of the society.

2. The nature of leader ship i.e. strong or weak.

3. The nature of the colonialists i.e. aggressive or friendly.

4. The nature of exploitation and oppression made Africans to use collaboration or resistance.

5. The level of interference in social, political and economic interest made Africans to react or not.
6. The nature of population [African societies] for example the size of the population, unity among the people etc.

Due to the above factors, it caused African societies to impose strong resistance or weak resistance or collaboration.


Collaboration was a way of reacting against imposition of colonial rule where by African societies cooperated with Europeans invaders. African societies used the method to oppose colonial rule by welcoming or making cooperation with the colonialists against indigenous [fellow] enemies and conducting treaties so as to get support and preserve their interests against their enemies.

Therefore collaboration simply means, Africans welcomed Europeans in order to get their support. For example Maasai, Buganda and Lozi collaborated with colonialists as the way to avoid their control. THE REASONS WHY SOME AFRICAN SOCIETIES COLLABORATED WITH COLONIALISTS

i. Poor/weak military power

Some societies had poor military power compared to the colonialists; therefore they decided to cooperate with them in the opposing manner.

ii. Poor leadership

Some societies in Africa decided to cooperate with colonialists because they had poor or weak leaders who were not militant confident to fight against colonial rule.

iii. To fight against their fellow Africans.

Some African societies collaborated with colonial rule invaders so as to get assistance to fight their fellow enemies who were strong militarily. For example Sangu, Bena and Yao collaborated with the Germany against Mkwawa of the Hehe.

iv. To get military/ weapon support.

African societies collaborated with colonialists because they wanted to get strong military weapons to defend their territories i.e. NambongoMumia of Wanga and KabakaMutesa collaborated with the British to get strong arms.

v. Fear and to promote peace and harmony.

Some societies in Africa decided to cooperate with colonialists due to the desire of maintenance of peace and harmony and avoiding warfare.

vi. Ignorance.

Ignorance of some Africans especially rulers [leaders] who did not understand the mission [intention] of colonialists through given gifts, fooled and persuaded them to sign bogus treaties. For example chief Mangungo of MsoveroKisola signed a bogus treaty with Karl peters. King Lobengula of shone and Ndebele signed bogus treaties with John Moffat

vii. Natural problems such as calamities/ disaster.
Some societies in Africa suffered a lot with natural calamities such as drought, floods hunger etc which made them weak politically hence collaborating with the colonialists to get relief or assistance. For example the Maasai, the Chagga, the Kikuyu etc.

viii. The role of missionaries:-

They played a great role to soften the African mind by preaching them to be humble and obidient to their masters, this lowered the African temper against colonial rule.


Resistance is the situation where by Africans fought in order to oppose European invasion or colonial rule.

Or is the opposition against colonial rule or control. FORMS OF RESISTANCE

There are two forms of resistance or reaction against colonial rule employed/ applied by Africans and these are:
1. Active resistance

2. Passive resistance ACTIVE RESISTANCE

is the form of resistance where by Africans took arms to fight against colonial rule, or active resistance is the one which Africans wage war to oppose colonial rule by destructing European properties like farms, killing Europeans and so on. Eg of African societies which applied active resistance against colonial systems were: Nyamwezi, under Isike, Hehe under Mkwawa and Yao under Machemba.



1. Presence of strong/ good leadership e.g. SamoriToure and Mkwawa.

2. Strong army.
3. Strong unity among the people.

4. Good war techniques.

5. Strong organizations/political systems.

6. Powerful socially and economically. PASSIVE RESISTANCE

Is the form of resistance where by Africans did not take arms in opposing colonial rule or cooperating with colonialists.


Passive resistance is unarmed or nonviolence opposition against colonial control by refusing to pay taxes, production of cash crops, denied to work etc. an example of a society which applied passive resistance was Pogoro who refused to involve in colonial activities like cotton picking in southern Tanganyika.


1. Poor weapons

2. Absence of strong army; presence of weak army made some African societies to afraid to fight.

3. Weak leadership.

4. Poor unity among the people.

5. Presence of natural calamities for example floods, droughts.

6. Weak social and political organizations.


Almost many African societies resisted against imposition of colonial rule due to the following reasons:

1. To defend social and political sovereignty;

Many societies in Africa decided to resist colonial rule because colonialist wanted to interfere their social and political power. So African chiefs or leaders such as Mkwawa, SamoraToure and Kaberegeetc took army to fight against it.

2. Interference of trade

Africans resisted against imposition of colonial rule because colonialists interfered with African trade monopolies which made Africans harsh towards colonialists hence resistance.

3. Interference of cultures

African resisted against imposition of colonial rule since colonialists wanted to interfere African culture such as religion, language etc.

4. Land alienation.

Africans resisted against imposition of colonial rule because colonialists took African’s land as a result
Africans took arms to fight against this.

5. Forced labour

Many African societies imposed to resist once against colonial rule since colonialists forced them to work by force without payment in colonial activities like farms, construction of BOMAS etc. Examples of resistances were Majimaji, Nandi resistance, Chimulenga etc.

6. Introduction of taxation

Colonialists introduced different heavy taxes such as head tax, cattle tax, hut taxandmatiti tax where Africans were forced to pay them as a result they resisted against the imposition of colonial rule.

7. Harsh rule

8. Africans were not ready to be colonized.

Africans resisted against the imposition of colonial rule because they were not ready to be colonized since they had their own system of governance and administration.

9. Beliefs of political and military strengths.

African societies were believed that they were powerful and strong in political and military as a result when colonialists came they opposed against them for example chief Machemba of Yao disobeyed Germany governor WISSMAN because he believed in his military power.

10. Colonial social segregation and discrimination.

Africans resisted against colonialist because Africans were segregated, oppressed and discriminated by them and treated as inferior in social, political and economic issues as a result Africans resisted them harshly

11. Alliance / collaboration between traditional enemies with the colonialists. TYPES OF RESISTANCE

There are two main types of resistance namely:

1. Small scale resistance [ primary resistance]

2. Large scale resistance[secondary resistance] SMALL SCALE RESISTANCE

Small scale resistance is the type of resistance which fought for a short period of time over a small area or small group of people.

Small scale resistance normally covered a small area fought on the basis of tribal lines occurred during penetration of colonialists i.e. the Nandi, Hehe, Nyamwezi etc.

Small scale resistance was influenced by local rulers [leaders] who organized their small groups of people to take army against European invaders to defend their territories.


1. The HEHE resistance [1891-1898]

2. The NYAMWEZI resistance [1891-1894]

3. The YAO resistance [1888]

4. The BUNYORO resistance[1893]

5. The MASAI [Kenya resistance 1895]

6. The NANDI resistance THE HEHE RESISTANCE [1891-1898]

HEHE resistance was a small scale resistance which occurred in 1891-1898 fought against Germany under the leadership of MKWAWA.


HEHE resistance was a small scale resistance fought between the HEHE tribe against Germany in 1891- 1898 under the leadership of MKWAWA. HEHE resistance was among of the strong and powerful resistance imposed towards Germany colonial power since it fought for many years and brought a lot of damages, sufferings and disturbances to Germany because HEHE tribe under the leadership of MKWAWA had good war techniques inherited from the Ngoni tribe such as cow horns, short stubbing spears and long hide.
Therefore through good war techniques HEHE under MKWAWA formed a strongest kingdom and resisted against Germany rule than the rest resistance in East Africa.


1. Interference of Mkwawa’s leadership, Germany wanted to control Mkwawa and forced him to
accept Germany control due to that Mkwawa disagreed to accept Germany rule.

2. To protect political and economical interests.

3. Interference of culture; Germany interfered Hehe culture such as polygamy belief in many systems etc which made the Hehe under the Mkwawa harsh hence fight against Germany.

4. Germany harsh rule; Germany ruled Hehe very harsh not respectful to the Hehe, they forced them to pay tax, to work and took their land as a result the Hehe fought against the Germany.

5. Killing of the Mkwawa’s delegates. Germany killed Mkwawa’s delegates who were sent to compromise as a result Mkwawa revenged by killing Germany commander known as EMIL VON ZELEWSKY and 300 African soldiers as a result war started. The name Mkwawa means conqueror of lands.

6. Germany’s occupation / control several areas in Tanganyika. Hehe under Mkwawa fought against the Germans because they wanted to control Ugogo, Uluguru, UsagaraandMpwapwa which had 410 economic importances to the HEHE.

7. Blocking trade routes; Hehe resistance against Germany occurred following Mkwawa blocking all Germany caravan routes passed his area which disrupted the Germany trade hence conflicts started.

Due to the above reasons or causes of the Hehe resistance the war/ fighting broke out which took a long period of time. The Germany attacked Mkwawa in 1891 following the killing of the Germany commander Emil von Zelewsky at Lugalo.

In 1894 Germany attacked Mkwawa’s capital known as Kalenga but Mkwawa succeeded to run away [escape] and started to fight the GORRILAS WARFARE until 1898.

In the same year 1898 Mkwawa while he was hiding himself he became sick. The Germans approached where he was hiding Mkwawa did not accept the shame of surrender to Germany while he was alive he shot himself in July 1898 and died. THE NANDI RESISTANCE [1896-1905]

Nandi resistance was a small scale resistance fought between the Nandi tribe in Kenya against British in 1896-1905 following the British occupation or control over the Nandi’s land.

Nandi resistance was a small scale resistance occurred in 1896-1905 when Nandi tribe in Kenya resisted against the British control over their land organized by a leader known as KOITALEL and ORKOLYOT.

The Nandi resistance occurred since the British invaded and occupied [control] the Nandi land by constructing [build] telegraphic lines and railways along the Nandi rift valley land which were fertile for crop production and livestock keeping. The Nandi were not happy for the construction of that railway lines and termed or called ”Iron snake”.

Therefore they started the resistance by attacking the British military position, uprooting and cutting wires, attacking the British caravan trade, raiding the railway deposits etc.

The Nandi did that because they believed that they had the superior weapons and military to fight British as they conquered the neighboring territories.


1. Introduction of the railway lines along the Nandi land. Nandi resisted against British because British constructed a railway line on the Nandi land which they defined on it for farming and livestock keeping.

2. Land problems or alienation. British took Nandi’s best and fertile land and gave it to the whites
settlements as a result the Nandi fought against them.

3. The Nandi’s pride. The Nandi fought against the British because they believed that they were superior, strong and powerful socially, economically, politically, militarily and culturally hence did not want to be controlled.

4. The pressure from Kimnyoles prophecy; the Nandi decided to fight against the British because of the prophecy of the Kimnyole who foreseen the coming of foreigners on their land which made the Nandi to fight against the British after they arrived on their land.

5. The killing of the Nandi leader KOITALEL; Nandi’s resisted against the British following the killing
of their leader known as Koitalel when he was called in the meeting of stopping the resistance.


1. The death of people. Nandi resistance led to the massive loss of people’s lives including leaders
such as Koitalel, Orkolyot and other warriors.

2. British colonizing the Nandi land. The British defeated the Nandi during resistance as a result they took the Nandi land and made the Nandi to lost their sovereignty.

3. Destruction or damage of properties. The Nandi resistance led to the destroying of people’s
properties including land, railways, telegraphic lines, killing of livestock, houses etc.
4. Hunger and famine. Nandi resistance led to the occurrence of hunger [food shortage] since resistance took many years and farms and cattle were killed during the fighting.

5. Migration of people. The Nandi resistance led to the restless of people because during and after the resistance people run away or migrated to other areas.

6. Land alienation. Nandi resistance led to many Nandi people to remain landless since after the
resistance British took Nandi’s fertile land.

7. Nandi resistance led to the introduction of cheap labour, since those Nandi people had decided to be employed as cheap labours to the British settle farms.

8. Over grazing of some area. Nandi resistance led to the environmental degradation since the area which the Nandi pushed or migrated were not enough for cattle grazing. THE NYAMWEZI RESISTANCE 1891-1894

Nyamwezi resistance was a small scale resistance against the Germany rule organized by Nyamwezi under their leader known as chief Isike in 1891-1894. The Nyamwezi resistance occurred as a result of German’s monopolization over Nyamwezi’s trade and passed through their land such as Ujiji and Mwanza which broke their first good trade relation.

The Nyamwezi started resistance under their leader chief Isike in 1891 in order to avoid the Germany control; but due to poor weapons the German attacked Isike’s fort and destroyed it. Chief Isike decided to blow up [kill himself] together with his family in the gun powder magazine rather than being captured by Germany.


The influence from Isike leadership. Isike was regarded as strong and powerful leader so he organized his people to fight against German rule.

The land conflicts. Germany wanted to control the Nyamwezi’s land as they did in other areas in
Tanganyika as a result Nyamwezi resisted against the German control.
1. Absence of strong army.

2. Poor weapons.

3. Disunity among the people.

4. Poor fighting techniques.

5. Poor war organizations etc. THE YAO RESISTANCE [1890-1899]

YAO resistance was small scale resistance which fought between the YAO against the Germans in 1890- 1899 under the leadership of Chief MWENE MACHEMBA.

The Yao resistance was an active resistance since Machemba organized his people actively and was able to defeat three Germany companies sent to him..Aftermachemba to defeat Germany companies; the German Governor forced Machemba to leave his place but he refused as a result German took up army against machemba and attacked Machemba’s fort in 1899. Machemba managed to escape into Mozambique and left his fellow imprisoned as a result the Yao resistance failed hence Germany took
control over the Yao‘s southern region of Tanganyika.


1. Interference of Yao’s territory. The Germany wanted to control the Yao’s territory which made
Yao under Machemba to fight activity against it.

2. The conflict between Machemba and the Germany. Machemba defeated three German companies as a result German took up army to fight.

3. Machemba’s rejection to surrender. The Germany forced Machemba to surrender by leaving his
place to the coast as a result Germany waged for the war.

4. Introduction of taxes.

5. Forced labour. The German forced Yao to work without or with low payment as a result people took up arms against Germany. ABUSHIRI AND BWANAHERI RESISTANCE 1888-1889

Abushiri and Bwana Heri resistance was a small scale resistance which occurred along the coastal region of Tanganyika where by rich Arabs and local traders organized to fight against the British and the German interference on their trade in 1888-1889.

Abushiri and Bwana Heri resistance was among of strong small scale resistance since they organized their strong forces against German by hoisting the German flag in all coastal towns. Due to this the British decided to join with German and started to interfere the Abushiri and Bwana Heri’s trade and production of coconut and cereal plantations which depended also on the slave trade activities by the German and the British utilizing their naval forces to suppress slave trade in Indian ocean.

As a result the German chancellor sent a Germany commander solider Von Wisman so as to recruit mercenaries [soldiers] to suppress Abushiri’s forces. Due to that Abushiri’s forces were defeated hence Abushiri decided to fled to Mpwapwa when he was captured and publicly hanged on 15th December 1889 after being betrayed by a village headman of Usangara known as Magaya a Jumbe. BWANA HERI’S RESISTANCE [1889-1894]

Was another coastal people’s resistance which came after the failure of Abushiri resistance organized by
Bwana Heri of Uzigua against Germany forces.
1. Germany interfered Bwana Heri’s economic activities at Saadan.

2. Introduction of taxes which were imposed by Germany officials.

3. Imposition of Germany control over Bwana Heri’s territories.

4. Interference of coastal people’s culture.

5. Political interference. THE MAKUNGANYA RESISTANCE [1894]

Makunganya resistance was another coastal Tanganyika small scale resistance which were fought between Hassan bin Omar Makunganya against Germany in 1894 after Bwana Heri being defeated, surrendered and run away.

Makunganya resistance did not last for a long time since Makunganya was defeated hence found hanged himself on a mango tree in November 1894 in KilwaKivinje. This mango tree was known as mwembekinyonga since it was used to hang all people who committed a crime and disobeyed the government’s orders. THE CHAGA RESISTANCE 1892

This was a small scale resistance led by chief MANGI SINA OF KIBOSHO and CHIEF MANDARA OF MOSHI (MARANGU) against the Germans in 1892.

At the end Germany defeated SINA of Kibosho and Mandara [lindi] of Marangu following disunity among the chiefs brought about by chief enmity.

At first the Germans entered on the land of the Chagga following the agreements of treaties signed by the local chiefs because the local chiefs were competing in welcoming foreigners and caravan routes for economic motives.

Due to this chief Mangisina got a lot of wealth from caravan trade routes from foreigners. Therefore chief Mandara tried his level best to safeguard his trade routes by providing enough supply of cattle and food to feed the caravan trade routes.

Chief Mandara decided to wage war against Chief Sina of Kibosho in order to get enough food and cattle supply to feed the caravan trade routes.

The Germany used the advantage of that Chief enmity between Chief Mandara and Sina of Kibosho by supporting Chief Mandara due to their friendship against Sina of kibosho who was not Germany friend because he lowered the Germany flag. The Sina of Kibosho was defeated when Mandara died in 1892 while the struggle continued by chief Mandala’s successor known as Chief (Mangi) Marialle.

Chief Marialle used diplomatic struggle by convincing Germany to live in Marangu which declared safe than Moshi.

Chief Marialle’s successor was chief Meli who killed a messenger sent by Germans. The Chief Marialle claimed to Germany that the messenger was killed by chief Meli as a result Germany attacked Chief Meli and hanged him in 1892 which marked the end of the resistance.


1. Interference of trade.

2. Presence of chief enmity between chief Mandara of Marangu and Sina of kibosho which Germany interred.

3. Need to control trade.

4. To maintain the power; Chagga chiefs waged for war because they wanted to safeguard and maintain their power. BUNYORO RESISTANCE IN UGANDA [1893]

Bunyoro resistance was a small scale resistance fought between the Banyoro and the British in 1893 under the leadership of kabalega.

Kabalega organized his tribe Bunyoro against British captain sir Lugard who introduced Christianity frictions to fight against Muslims forces in Bunyoro.

Due to that Kabaka also joined the resistance with Bunyoro against British because he was also harshly punished by the British for involving into ivory trade without British commissioners consent. But Kabaka was defeated then he joined with kaberega; Where both were defeated by British forces and sent them in exile in Sycelles in 1899. This marked the end of the resistance and British took control over Buganda.


1. Religious interference.

2. Interference of culture.

British interfered the Bunyoro and Buganda’s culture by forcing people to follow English cultures as a result people resisted.

1. Interference of trade.

British interfered the Kabaka and Bunyoro’s trade because Ugandans were not allowed to trade without British commission.

1. Interference of leadership.

2. British hash treatment.

British government treated the Ugandans including leaders very hash by forcing them to accept British harsh rules, to pay taxes, to involve in production etc. as a result people resisted. THE MAZRUI DYNASTY’S RESISTANCE

The Mazrui dynasty resistance was active small scale resistance fought between the Arabs ruling family and rich merchants (traders) against the British in June 1895 to safeguard trade opportunities.

Mazrui dynasty resistance was active small scale resistance since it involved in burning town the coast.

Despite of fighting against British strongly and actively, Mazrui resistance was failed since British employed its puppet known as Rashid bin Salim who betrayed his fellows Mazrui as a result Mazrui escaped to Germany East Africa hence British took control over their areas by using local merchants and administrators.


1. Interference of trade.

2. Introduction of African British Company.

3. The harsh British rule. THE SOMALI RESISTANCE IN KENYA

Somali resistance was small scale active resistance fought against the Somali people in north Eastern Kenya against the British to protect their land for pastoralist activities such as livestock pasture and waste.

Somali people being pastoralists they practiced nomadic life means moving with their cattle from one place to another searching for water and pastures.

The presence or imposition of British on their land disturbed their activities of pastoralist which was their main economic activities, therefore the Somalis reacted against British by making a number of attacks in the British areas such as Yonte the British outpost; but British was able to defeat the Somali in 1901 after sending their armed forces.


1. Land alienation

The British took the best land to which Somali depended for pastoralist activities for pasture and water.

1. Interference of Somali economic activities.

Example of large scale were Majimaji war/ resistance in Tanganyika, Mau Mau and Nandi resistance in Kenya, Chimulenga war or Shona and Ndebelle resistance in Zimbabwe. Nama and Herero resistance in Namibia, SamoriToure resistance or Mandika resistance in Guinea, Taja of Opobo resistance in Nigeria.

Almost large scale resistance in different parts of Africa were caused due to the following reasons;

1. Land alienation.

2. Forced labour.

3. Interference of culture.

4. Interference of rule or leadership.

5. Introduction of taxation.

6. Interference of political and economic interests such as trade.

7. Colonial harsh treatment. For example exploitation and humiliation.

8. People [Africans] wanted to regain their lost independence.

9. Cattle confiscation or taking.

10. Poor working conditions.




Majimaji resistance was a large scale resistance which occurred in 1905-1907 between the southern Tanganyika societies against Germany rule. It was organized by a leader known as KinjetikitileNgwale.

Majimaji resistance broke out in 1905-1907 following the Germany brutal /harsh rule and exploitation along the southern part of Tanganyika. Germany introduced the cotton plantations by which people were much affected by that since their land was taken. People were forced to work, they were paid low wages and forced to pay taxes as a result KinjekitileNgwale who was religious charismatic and revolutionary leader, organized the southern Tanganyika societies which involved different tribes like the Ngindos, Matumbi, Mbugu, Pogoro, Maasai, from different areas such as Makonde plateau, Songea, Kilombero valley, Mahenge and Dar es salaam.

KinjikitileNgwale managed to organize all the tribes through the magic water which was drawn or taken from river Rufiji and mixed up with maize and millet flour which was thrown on the bodies of fighters under the beliefs that water will turn them into the bullet in war. That is why the resistance was termed as Majimaji which was derived from a Swahili word Maji.

Therefore though the magic water introduced by KinjekitileNgwale; southern Tanganyika societies got courage, discipline and strengthened them to took army and fight against Germany fearless despite the Germany had strong army and were powerful.


1. People wanted to regain their lost independence.

The independence and the freedom of southern Tanganyika societies lost after Germany took control over them, so people fought in order to regain their independence.

2. Introduction of cotton plantations.

Germany cotton plantations introduced in southern Tanganyika led to the Majimaji resistance since people were forced to grow cotton cash crops instead of food crops.

3. Land alienation.

Germany took southern Tanganyika’s best and fertile land for cotton plantations and left people landless as a result of the Majimaji.

4. Introduction of forced labour.

Germany forced people to work in cotton plantations and public centers without willingness or payment as a result of Majimaji resistance.

5. Introduction of taxes

Germany forced people of southern Tanganyika to pay heavy taxes such as head tax for colonial government activities such as building roads, hospitals, schools, offices etc; as a result people reacted through Majimaji resistance.

6. Low wages.

Payment of low wages and long working hours made people to react against Germans through Majimaji war.

7. Interference of culture.

1.13.3. The agreements reached during the Anglo-Germany treaty of 1886.

The Anglo-Germany agreement of November 1886 affected Britain and Germany and the sultan of Zanzibar. According to this agreement the islands of Zanzibar, Pemba, Mafia and Lamu and other towns of Kismoyu, Brava, Merca and Mogadishu and War sheikh were defined as dominions of the sultans of Zanzibar. The northern half became the British sphere of influence while the area to south became a Germany sphere of influence.

The following were agreements of the Anglo-Germany agreement of 1886.

Sultan of Zanzibar was given control of the island of Zanzibar, Pemba, Lamu, Mafia and coastal towns such as Kismayu, Bravo, Mogadishu etc

They agreed to maintain integrity and power of sultan’s dominions and to solve (settle) their conflicts over Kilimanjaro peacefully.
British were given control over river Ruvuma, Lake Victoria, North West and half of north Kenya.

Germany was given Tanganyika and coastal line of Witu. The two powers agreed to maintain the
integrity of the sultan’s dominions and to settle their rival claims over Kilimanjaro peacefully.

1.13.4. Causes and effects of the Majimaji uprising to the people of Tanganyika.

Majimaji uprising/ war was formed from a Swahili word ‘’Maji” which means magic water. The water was used by Prophet KinjekitileNgwale who provided that water to the fighters that; after drinking and washing with that water, they would turn bullets into water. He instilled discipline and confidence among the fighters against the Germans. The uprising started from 1905-1907. The following were the reasons or causes of the Majimaji uprising.

The Africans wanted to defend their political sovereignty. The arrival of the Germans destroyed the African political structures and replaced them with their own rulers such as the Jumbes and Akidas.

Introduction of taxation. The natives were forced to pay tax to colonial government. The Aumbes and Akidas collected taxes from the natives by using excessive forces such as confiscation of Africa.

Cash crop production was accompanied by forced labour. People were forced to work in colonial plantations and other colonial sectors for long hours with low payments.

The use of Jumbes and Akidas in administration.

These were Swahili officials who were recruited from the coastal areas; in their work they used brutal ways which embarrassed the Africans.

Interference in trade was another reason for resistance. The African’s position in trade was occupied by the German traders.

The Africans were against sexual harassments and immoral practices done by German agents to their wives and daughters. German soldiers slept with Ngindo wives.

The good leadership, mobilization and ability of Prophet Kinjekitele Ngwale. He managed to mobilize a large group of followers against the Germans. The use of magic water gave the Africans confidence of fighting though it was a false belief. THE EFFECTS/ SHORT COMING OR IMPACTS OF THE MAJIMAJI UPRISING

1. Large famine and starvations broke out among the African communities, farms and food stores were set on fire i.e. fungafunga.

2. Depopulation. Fighters and common villagers died in the war.

3. Large scale migration. Africans migrated from the areas affected by war; they were looking for asylum for their survival.

4. The colonial government made a positive change on the side of Africans. The Africans were no longer forced to work they would choose to work or not.

5. The Majimaji resistance gave a lesson to the future life Tanganyikans that; the use of force does not always give fruitful results.

6. Brutal system of administrations of using Jumbes and Akidas was replaced by young men from mission schools; this had improved the system of administration. POSITIVE IMPACTS OF THE MAJI MAJI WAR [IMPORTANCE]

1. German changed harsh administration. After Majimaji Germans decided to stop oppressing people and forcing them to work etc.

2. Majimaji unified and brought solidarity. Majimaji brought many southern societies together including the Ngindo, Zaramo, Ngoni, Matumbietc, to resist against the Germans.

3. Majimaji paved the way of nationalistic movements. Majimaji showed the element of
Tanganyika’s disagreement to colonialism.

4. People learnt that unity is strength.

5. Majimaji showed that people wanted to regain their lost independence. Majimaji showed that the Tanganyikans wanted to be free and that they could fight. This gave a lesson to the Germans.

6. Majimaji educated Africans to use good war techniques instead of depending on superstition beliefs. The failure of the Majimaji war gave lesson to Africans to get well prepared and use good war techniques instead of believing in magic power e.g. war


1. The use of false beliefs.
The use of magic water took the African to war unprepared. They thought that; what they wanted would automatically drive them to their success.

2. Germans had superior weapons compared to the weapons used by Africans.

The Africans were using outdated guns and traditional weapons such as bows, arrows and spears.

3. There was no military communication among the tribes which engaged in the war. Each tribe fought independently; there was no central military command.

4. Though Majimaji spread to various areas, it did not involve big tribes like the Hehe and Nyamwezi. These tribes hesitated to join the war as they had already suffered the defeat from the same intruders.

5. The Germans suppressed the revolts by destroying the means which made the Africans to withstand the war. They destroyed farms and villages this in turn starved the Africans in which they failed to continue with war.

6. Poor leadership. Despite of KinjekitileNgwale to convince and organize people confidently to fight against Germany, but he organized them poorly under poor beliefs of magic power.

7. Germany got weapons and mercenary soldiers support during Majimaji resistance. People of Tanganyika failed because Germany got many war weapons and soldiers support assistance from her other colonies such as Sudan, New Guinea and Somalia.


1.14. MAU MAU UPRISING WAR 1945-1952.

Mau Mau uprising was a movement organized by Africans as a last resort in the struggle for independence. It was an attempt by the desperate people to resist against colonial system. The movement broke out in 1905’s. The kikuyu people initiated it and later it spread to other areas.

It was aimed at attaining or deserving national freedom and independence while Majimaji resistance was against imposition of colonial rule.

Mau Mau rebellion/ war was first organized by the kikuyu tribe who were affected much by British colonial exploitation through forced labour, land alienation and introduction of taxation (multi taxes) etc, then later on Mau Mau was joined by other tribes applied Guerrillas warfare techniques hiding in the forest and attacking the British areas suddenly.


1. Mau Mau aimed at the desire to get their bet independence.

2. Mau Mau aimed at killing all the Europeans and Africans to collaborate in order to stop colonial exploitation and oppression.
3. Mau Mau aimed at sending away all Europeans to their countries so as Africans to get their independence.

4. Mau Mau aimed at attaining majority rule.

5. Mau Mau aimed at getting equal rights with the white men.

6. Mau Mau aimed at stopping land alienation.

7. Mau Mau aimed at attaining equal rights and representation in executive and legislative council because; Kenyans were given no or few chances in colonial government and in legislative council for example in 1994 one Kenyan named Eliad Mathieu was a member of the parliament while in 1948 only four Kenyans were members of the parliament.


1. Land alienation

British colonial government took Kenyan’s best and fertile land and left Kenyans landless under crown colony land policy of 1915 which gave British settlers long term of land ownership; for example 99years to 999 years.

2. Introduction of taxes.

Mau Mau broke out [occurred] due to heavy taxes introduced by British government which Kenyans were forced to pay such as; matiti taxes which parents forced to pay for their mature young girls, hut tax and head tax.

3. Forced labour

Kenyans fought against British government and settlers due to forced labour where by Kenyans were forced to work with no or low wages to colonial government activities.

4. Introduction of Kipande system

British introduced an identity card which shows someone’s working place, which also forced people to work into colonial government and settle in the certain fixed places in year free of charge hence Kenyans became harsh hence the Mau Mau rebellion.

5. Interferences of culture.

Kikuyu tribes had their cultural practices like female circumcision, polygamy, beliefs in many Gods etc; then the British interfered them as bad culture which made the kikuyu to fight.

6. British harsh rule.

7. Kenyans wanted to gain their lost independence.

Mau Mau occurred because Kenyans were tired of the British colonial control which was very harsh.

8. Legislative ordinance of 1921.

9. Return of the Kenyan ex-soldiers from World War II.


Many people including the Kenyans and whites [British] were killed during Mau Mau hence decreased number of people.

1. Destruction of properties

People’s properties including houses, farms, and infrastructures were destroyed during the fighting due to burning and the use of weapons.

2. Fear and insecurity

Mau Mau war created fear and insecurity among Kenyans; since it was fought for many years hence people were unsettled.

3. Family separations.

Mau Mau war led to many men and women to leave their children because of the war as a result they left their children parentless hence family disintegration.

4. Migration of people

Mau Mau war led to many people to escape / run away to different areas due to the fear of war.

5. Hunger and famine.

Mau Mau war led to the hunger and famine because people took long period to fight instead of involving in production. Also many food crops were destroyed during the fighting.

6. Mau Mau brought unity to the Kenyans.

Mau Mau brought Kenyans together regardless of their tribal differences despite the war was initiated [started] by the kikuyu tribe.

7. Mau Mau led to the decolonization of Kenyans.
Mau Mau contributed for the Kenyan independence in 1963.


1. The war brought about positive political changes in Kenya. The British opened the door for political negotiations. The Africans were given an opportunity to be represented in the legislative council.

2. The colonial government allowed political associations to operate at local level i.e. open politics. This change was a good start for Kenyans also the Kenyans were allowed to grow cash crops i.e. in the Kikuyu land, Emu etc.

3. It was a clear sign that the Africans would no longer tolerate foreign domination rather they needed full political independence.

4. Mau Mau paved the way for freedom and independence. The end of Mau Mau led the British to start granting independence to start granting independence to the Kenyans

5. Mau Mau led Kenyans to be given social, political and economical rights such as participating in educational opportunities etc


State of emergency were measures taken/ announced by the British governor known as Evelyn Baring in 1952 as a result of the outbreak of the Mau Mau war which brought negative impacts to British colonial government such as; destruction of properties, mass killing, road and railway blocking etc.


i) Banning of political parties: State of emergency in Kenya declared to stop all political parties activities which organized people for independence e.g. KANU, KADU.

ii) Imprisonment of political nationalist leaders like DedanKimathi, Jomo Kenyatta etc; were imprisoned so as to break unity following the state of emergency

iii) Close down all private schools. State of emergency in Kenya declared the closure of all private schools since it is believed that; the politicians used for destroying peace and harmony.

iv) Introduction of heavy taxes. State of emergency declared Kenyans to pay more taxes to compensate for Mau Mau effects.

v) Forbid people to possess weapons. After state of emergency in Kenya law was passed to prevent Kenyans to carry any firearm.
vi) Assassination of Kenyan political leaders. State of emergency in Kenya led to leaders such as DedanKimathi, Mboillela to be jailed and killed by the British government.

vii) Burning and bombing of villages and forests. State of emergency led to Kenyan forests and villages to be burned and bombed so as to chase away freedom fighters that were in there.


i) Removal of the kikuyu out of Nairobi. The state of emergency led kikuyu people who were the initiators of the Mau Mau to be chased from Nairobi so as to stop them from supporting the Mau Mau fighters.

ii) Constitutional changes. State emergency in Kenya led to the declaring of changes in the constitution for example multiracial councils formed to replace executive councils.

iii) Introduction of new settlements. Kikuyu were forced to live in new big areas so as to access social services easily such as health, education etc.

iv) Increase of employment opportunities. Employment opportunities increased especially to other tribes following the kikuyu to be removed from Nairobi.

v) Mass suffering. State of emergency led to the majority of kikuyu to suffer psychologically, feared to be killed.

vi) It paved way for Kenyan independence. State of emergency contributed for Kenyans to speed up the desire for independence since Kenyans became more courageous, militant and confident.

Generally state of emergency which declared in 1957 to react against Mau Mau war led to Kenyan independence in 1963 since Kenyans started to grant independence through diplomacy by using political parties which brought a lot of challenges in the British government hence independence.



The West African societies also reacted against imposition of colonial rule / invasion. There were various resistances against French invasion and British invasion as follows;

a) Resistance against French invasion in Senegambia.

b) SamoraToure [Mandika] resistance against French invasion in Guinea.

c) Taja of Opobo and Ashanti resistance against British in Nigeria hinterland.


At first French military conquest in West Africa were directed to Senegambia in West Africa during the leadership of MahmadouLamine and against guinea under leadership of SamoraToure. AIMS OF THE FRENCH TO CONQUER WEST AFRICA [GUINEA AND SENEGAMBIA]

i) To capture trade centers of western Sudan.

ii) To control the strategic areas between upper Senegal and Niger.

iii) To control trade of palm oil, groundnut and gold.

iv) To colonize those areas.

These above French demands/ aims created a conflict between the French and West African societies since Africans were not happy for their areas to be taken by the French.

Following resistance/ reaction from the Africans guided by their leaders, French decided to use number of techniques to control these areas as follows;

a) Collaboration by using existing local differences and start a new conflict between Africans and ruling groups.

b) The French also made alliances / collaboration with the Empire of Tukolor under Sheikh Ahmadel, Bandu Empire under Omar Penda and Khasso Empire under LukuSambala. Due to this collaboration French managed to conquer Senegambia (Senegal) and other weak states in West Africa.


SamoriToure [Mandika] resistance was a long time resistance which took place in 1891-1898 organized by strong militant leader known as SamoriToure against French invasion / rule in guinea [Mandika empire].

SamoriToure who fought strongly against the French invasion, he was a soldier and a successful trader born in the country presently known as Guinea. SamoriToure became a powerful, militant, courageous and strong leader since he was sixteen years old; he intended to establish a strong military state to prevent his new Mali Empire under Mandika tribe not to be colonized by the French.

Therefore SamoriToure being a successful trader due to selling gold, slaves and kola nuts during the Trans Saharan trade routes such as the Timbuktu, Taghanza and Walata which enabled SamoriToure to acquire a lot of profit which he used to employ and feed thousands of soldiers and mercenaries in his state who provided long time / term resistance against imposition of French rule in guinea [Mandika empire]. REASONS WHY OR ACCOUNT FOR THE SAMOURI TOURE RESISTANCE AGAINST THE FRENCH IN 1891- 1898.

1) Interference of trade

SamoriToure fought against the French because the French wanted to control over the trade across his territory hence he wanted to safeguard it.

2) French expansion mission.

French wanted to expand or extend their territory by conquering Mandika Empire which led SamoriToure to fight to protect his territory.

3) Interference of the Mandika’s culture.

Mandika’s culture was interfered by the French as a result SamoriToure fought in order to defend their
culture such as beliefs, language etc.

4) The role of ex-soldiers.

SamoriToure fought against the French because he had strong, powerful and courageous soldiers who were formally saving (work) for French government and learnt different war techniques.

5) Desire to protect Mandika’s independence.

SamoriToure fought against the French because they wanted to control Mandika which was fully independent and reached at high peak of military supremacy.

6) French support/ assistance to SamoriToure’s enemies. French collaborated with SamoriToure’s enemies to fight such as; Tieba and Sikaso by selling and supplying firearms to fight against SamoriToure, as a result SamoriToure fought against the French. WHY SAMORI TOURE MANAGED TO CONTAIN [FIGHT] THE FRENCH FORCES FOR SO LONG 1891-1898

1) Good leadership. SamoriToure was good, powerful and courageous person[leader] who was able to organize Mandika well.


SamoriToure was a successful trader and soldier hence used his skills and wealth to fight against French such as employing soldiers and making weapons.

2) Good war techniques. Good war techniques such as gorillas or command tactics helped SamoriToure to ambush and raid French forces hence fought for a long time.

3) Strong army.

SamoriToure managed to fight against French forces for a long time because he had a strong army consisted of 12000 men and 40000 reserves.

4) Modern weapons.

SamoriToure had skills of making his own weapons and bought them from other leaders as a result he fought for a long time.

5) SamoriToure had a lot of wealth from the trade of slaves, gold and kola nuts which was utilized in rewarding his workers and soldiers for their services.

6) Unity among the Mandika people. Mandika Empire was well united in defending and protecting strongly their empire under the leadership of SamoriToure.

7) The rise or scorched Earth military techniques. SamoriToure used scorched Earth tactics such as burning villages and destroying crops prevented French forces to reach their places easily.

8) Agriculture countries / availability of enough food.

9) The use of Islamic religion and culture. REASONS WHY/FACTORS FOR THE FAILURE /DEFEAT OF SAMOURI TOURE.

i) Shortage of military weapons. Due to longtime fighting SamoriToure forces failed to manufacture or produce and get enough supply of weapons as a result they failed.

ii) Disunity among rulers. Some leaders such as Ahmed Seku of Tukula and Tieba of Sikasso led to the failure of SamoriToure resistance because they did not support SamoriToure rather cooperated with the French.

iii) Strong, disciplined and organized French army; Despite of SamoriToure to have strong army, he was defeated because the French army was more trained, experienced and more organized in military activities.

iv) Lack of communities support. Other communities such as the non Mandika and the non Muslims communities decided to support the French instead of TamoriToure hence he was defeated.

v) Long time fighting [battle]. Long time fighting led to the failure of samoritoure because people failed to produce and they were tired of the endless war

vi) Instability and public misery. Many people suffered during SamoriToure resistance since crops were destroyed, villages were fired left people with hunger and no properties hence the defeat.

vii) Failure of the British agreement with SamoriToure. French allied with British in the Anglo French agreement in 1889-1890 which stopped British from supplying arms to SamoriToure’s army.



British imposited and conquered the southern region of Nigeria, used various methods in order to ensure that they control the area since Nigeria was a very potential area for colonial demands also there were strong centralized states hence it was not easy for the British to control the area easily so the British used two methods;

1) British used a combination of making treaties [diplomacy] and military force conquest. For example in conquest of Southern Nigeria; British used military force and British used diplomacy in conquering Northern Nigeria.

2) Also British used agencies / companies in order to conquer Nigeria for example British used the following companies;

1. The royal Niger companies
2. The Lagos colonial state
3. The Niger protectorate authority

Therefore in order for the British to succeed to control Nigeria [interland] they decided to make bogus treaties with local rulers in Niger delta in 1884 which led to the proclamation of the Oil River protectorate in June 1885. KING JAJA OF OPOBO

King Jaja of Opobo kingdom was among of the rulers in West Africa in particular Nigeria who strongly opposed imposition or establishment of British colonial rule / control in his area.

King Jaja of Opobo was powerful economically and militarily because; king Jaja was a successful trader who benefited from palm oil trade. After the coming of the British merchants opposed and interfered king Jaja’s monopoly [control] of the palm oil Rivers.

Therefore king Jaja decided to react against the British imposition in his territory to safeguard his economical, political and social position and power. REASONS WHY KING JAJA OF OPOBO OPPOSED IMPOSITION OF BRITISH COLONIAL RULE IN HIS AREA.

1. He wanted to protect his trade of palm oil because Britain interfered.
2. He opposed British monopolizing his trade.
3. King Jaja opposed to pay taxes since the British forced him to pay custom duties.
4. King Jaja opposed British interference to his power since British forced him to change commercial trade policies.
5. King Jaja opposed trade interference.
Due to the above British attempts, king Jaja fought against the British which led to the relationship between British to break hence the decline of trade.

King Jaja’s military was defeated by the British forces and deported king Jaja to Seychelles while the Northern Nigeria resistance continued until first half of the 20th century when Royal Niger company forces annexation in 1899 and 1900 when British was taking over the colony [ 1900].


The British mission to control Nigeria was not ended in king Jaja of Opobo’s territory. British also wanted to conquer the coast of Nigeria which were occupied by two surface societies namely;

1. Ashanti
2. Fante societies.

Ashanti and Fante societies were the coastal Nigerian societies, which strongly opposed British control along the coast of Nigeria. Therefore during British imposition along the coast of Nigeria; British encountered many resistance and war from Ashanti and Fante Empire as follows; ANGLO [BRITISH] ASHANTI WAR

The Anglo-Ashanti war was a resistance organized by Ashanti against British imposition of British rule along the coast of Nigeria.

Ashanti was one of the Akan speaking people who occupied the southern part of Ghana in West Africa. By 1670 the Akan people started forming states such as AKWAMU, DENKRIYA and FANTE. The leader of this empire was known as Osei Tutu [Ssantehene by title]. The capital city of coast [Ghana] was known as Kumasi in which marked the end of Ashanti/ Asante power.


a) The growth of Trans-Atlantic trade brought a lot of wealth to the Asante people. This wealth was instrumental in the prosperity of the Empire.

b) The kingdom had strong agricultural base, they managed to produce enough food throughout the year.

c) The Asante had a large efficient standing army. The introduction of guns and gun powder by the Europeans during the trade enabled the Ashanti to be militarily powerful than their neighbors.

d) The”Golden Stool” brought about unity in the kingdom. It was the symbol of power and authority in
the area.

e) The Asante were brave and proud people, they struggled to be free from the oppressive rule of the Denkyira and this motivated them to form their independent empire.

f) Odwrira festivals that were held annually helped to make the empire more cohesive.
g) The first three rulers or Asantehene were able and courageous politicians; these were ObiriYeboa, Osei Tutu and Opuku Were, these leaders each one in his region was able to control people in his area. FACTORS FOR THE FALL

a) Weak leadership.

Some of the kings in the 19th century were not capable in building the empire. There were several revolts within the empire; the end result was the outbreak of the civil war.

b) The abolition of the Atlantic slave trade in the 19th century the empire had lost its source of income.

c) The establishment of colonialism in the 19th century. The empire was occupied by the British and made the areas as source of raw materials, markets and cheap labours. When they invaded they overthrew the Asantehene.


People of central Africa and other African societies in Africa also fought against imposition of colonial rule.

Therefore there are two notable resistances against colonial rule in central Africa as follows;

A) Shona and the Ndebele resistance against British in Zimbabwe [Chimulenga war] 1896-1897’

B) Nama and Herero resistance against Germany in Namibia 1904-1907.

Reaction against imposition of colonial rule in Zimbabwe and Zambia started since the time of establishment of colonial rule because; many European nations including Britain, Boers and Portuguese were all interested in the land between Limpopo and Zambezi which one of its part of South Zambezi was under control of king Lobengula of Matebele. The British got into clashes or rivalry with the king Lobegula so as to control those areas in 1885.

Several companies were opened to secure the concession to prospect areas, for example of those companies were; the Boers consolidated mining company which mined diamonds at Kimberly, also consolidated Goldfield in South Africa Ltd. both companies were controlled by Cecil Rhodes and British capitalist.

The duties/aims of the above companies were;

a) Conducting trade activities.

b) Control the potential areas for example Zambezi and Limpopo.

c) Exploitation of natural resources such as minerals like diamonds at Kimberly.
Due to the above mission of imperialists /capitalists companies; African rulers did not agree their areas to be monopolized by capitalist hence resisted to solve these conflicts. European capitalists signed different treaties as follows:


The treaty was signed between a British missionary known as J S Moffat a son of Robert Moffat ex- missionary at Inyati with king Lobegula of Ndebele {Matebele}.

The treaty aimed at establishing a protectorate over Matebele land. Through this treaty king Lobengula was persuaded and cheated to sign the treaty which was bogus this led king Lobengula’s territory (Matebele land) to be taken by the British in 1888. King Lobengula signed that bogus treaty with British Company (BSACO).


Was another treaty signed between Charles Rudd sent by Cecil Rhodes, sent with the backing of the Boer’s company to secure a concession for mineral rights in the Lobengula’sterritory.

Due to these two treaties made king Lobengula‘s land to be occupied by the British as a result king Lobengula decided to cooperate with the Shona tribe to fight against white occupation.


After the British occupied both the Shona and Ndebele land through signing of bogus treaties with JS Moffat and Charles Rudd treaties, it led to the Shona and Ndebele land to be taken by the British south African company BSACO as a result the Shona and Ndebele started to experience a lot of sufferings, exploitation, harsh treatments, disasters etc. Shona and Ndebele decided to join and fight against the British in 1896 to 1897 hence the Chimulenga war.


Shona and Ndebele resistance traditionally known as Chimulenga joined two tribesof Shona and Ndebele against the British rule in Zimbabwe in 1896-1897 under the leadership of King Lobengula. Shona and Ndebele resistance was first launched / started by Ndebele [Matebele] tribe in April 1896 following British occupation at Matebele land, Shona joined the war in June 1896[the same year] that is why the war was called Chimulenga war.

Therefore Chimulenga war was the traditional resistance which was organized by Shona and Ndebele tribe against British rule in Zimbabwe in 1886 to 1897 led by king Lobengula. THE CAUSES OF THE SHONA AND NDEBELE WAR.

1) Land question
The BSACO and white settlers confiscated the fertile land from the Africans hence the natives were pushed into the reserves and ultimately they became the labourers in the various economic sectors.

2) Forced labor

The prevalent policy of the whites was to force the Africans in both Mashona and Ndebele [Matebele] land to provide labour in the colonial economic sectors. The Africans through their chiefs were forced to provide labour power in the farms and mines. All able men had to work regardless of their former positions in the society.

3) Taxation

In 1894 the hut tax was introduced. Some of the Shona chiefs and their subjects rejected new laws that were introduced by colonial government; cattle, goats and grains were confiscated from those who failed to pay tax.

4) Low wages

Those Africans who were subjected to forced labour in the mines and in white farms were poorly paid though they worked for long hours.

5) Interference of trade.

The desire of the company [BSACO] to control trade in the Mashona land created chaos in the area.

6) Interference of culture.

Missionaries wanted to spread Christianity which was against the African culture and religion.

7) Loss of cattle

Cattle were the backbone of the Shona and the Ndebele. The British government confiscated the cattle and gave them to the British.

8) Missionary’s interference in the traditions and customs of the shona and the Ndebele people; Missionaries wanted to spread Christianity which was against the African culture. THE EFFECTS [CONSEQUENCES] OF THE CHIMULENGA [SHONA AND NDEBELE] WAR.

1. Depopulation

Chimulenga war led to the decrease in number of Shona and Ndebele because of the killings and many people runaway.

1. Hunger and famine
Shona and Ndebele war led to hunger and famine because people were not involving in production and many crops were destroyed during the war.

1. The Ndebele chiefs were considered and employed in various administrative positions under the BSACO administration.
2. Destruction of properties.

Shona and Ndebele properties such as farms, houses, and cattle were destroyed during the Chimulenga war.

1. Death of people.
During Chimulenga war many people including the Shona, Ndebele and the British lost their lives.

1. Fear and insecurity

Chimulenga war led to people unrest and fear because there was no peace and security.


Nama and Herero were the tribes who fought against Germans in South Africa [Namibia]. The resistance took place in 1904-1907. Herero was led by chief Maherero while Nama was led by chief WITBOOI. THE CAUSES OF THE NAMA AND HERERO RESISTANCE/ UPRISING

1. Herero were forced to carry passes [forced labour]; Nama and Herero were forced to work in
the German settlers’ farms with low or without payment hence uprising.
2. Many people died and others were left casualties, chief Witbooi was also killed.
3. German encroachment.

The establishment of colonial rule in those areas had replaced Africans in the political positions. The Africans under their chiefs wanted to restore their dignity.

4. Land alienation.

Indigenous land was occupied by Germany and in turn Africans were alienated from their land.

5. Forced labour.

Forced labor became the order of the day since African labourers were needed in the construction of railways, roads and farms.
6. Cattle confiscation.

Germans confiscated cattle of the Africans for the purpose of denying those means of subsistence; with this the circumstances would compel them to look for an employment.

7. An outbreak of render pest disease in 1903.

The disease killed many cattle. This event was interpreted as a curse from the God for the Africans cooperating with the whites thus they had to fight against them.

8. Debt crisis.

Africans particularly the Herero failed to repay back the money to the German traders. The German government decided to confiscate the cattle and the land, the action led to the misunderstanding between Africans and the Germans hence the uprising. EFFECTS OF THE NAMA AND HERERO RESISTANCE

1. Many people died and others were left casualties. Chief Witbooi was also killed.
2. Many Africans turned to be laborers after losing their cattle and land.
3. Herero were forced to carry passes.
4. Chiefdom ship was officially abolished in Namibia.
5. Nama and Herero became under foreign rule until 1918 when they became under South Africa as the mandate territory.

1.17.6. ETHIOPIAN RESISTANCE [1889-1913]

Ethiopian resistance was reaction against imposition of the Italy colonial rule in Ethiopia in 1889 to 1913 under the leadership of MENELIK II.

Menelik II began his career in southern Ethiopia by expanding his empire, following the death of john IV in 1889; he was assisted by the Italians and declared himself emperor by signing the uncial treaty on May 2nd 1889. He was a great diplomat who commanded popularity and public attention of many people including kings and the British. He is said to have influenced RasMangusha of Tiger to his side to scare the Italians who liked to impose their rule in Tiger and other Northern states. CAUSES OF THE ETHOPIAN RESISTANCE.

1. Menelik resisted because the Italians annexed and arbitrarily declared Northern Ethiopia as their protectorate.
2. The Italians used the uncial treaty which differed in its meaning in the Latin and Ethiopian languages to prove declaration of Ethiopia as their colony.
3. The Italian attempts in 1890 to stop Menelik II from negotiating the diplomatic exchange of the envoys with France and Russia caused further misunderstanding.
4. The Italians campaigned to pay off the Northern chiefs against Menelik. His foe was RasMangasha from the north the Italians used him to ferment quarrels between the two. REASONS FOR THE SUCCESS OF THE ETHIOPIANS

1) Menelik success in safeguarding the Adowa army against the Italians altered Europeans view regarding Ethiopia from one of a potential colony to an equal sovereign state.

2) Language united the people of Ethiopia.

The people of Ethiopia had a strong belief in the common historical origin. Moreover they shared a common religion of Christianity in which they were strong adherent and they had strong attachment to the Solomonia Dynasty.

3) The geography of Ethiopia also helped to safeguard the independence of the country.

4) Ethiopia was lucky to have leaders who were talented in leadership and organization. That factor contributed to the defense and conquering of the Italians and preservation of their political independence.

5) Ethiopian leaders manipulated European antagonism among them for their own advantage.

6) The Ethiopians had established long a high spirit of national feeling and national unity.

7) Little economic endowments and lack of mineral potentials have been advanced factors why Ethiopians escaped Europe and imperialism.


African people were not ready to be under colonial rule; they showed this by responding with different methods where others used active resistance, others used passive resistance and others collaborated. Most of the African resistances failed. Majimaji resistance [1905-1905] in Tanganyika, the Nama –Herero uprising [1904-1907] in Namibia and other resistance among the HEHE, Buganda, Ashanti etc are just some examples.


a) Disunity among Africans rulers; the resistors were unable to come together for common goal of fighting their enemies.

b) The unpopularity of some African leaders among their subjects led to the European’s victory.

c) Some African chiefs collaborated with the Europeans on the matters of personal interests. Some chiefs betrayed their fellow Africans by allying with Europeans. For example the Baganda allied with the British against the Bunyoro.
d) Military and modern technological superiority among Europeans was a major factor. due to the industrial revolution the Europeans were able to produce superior armies [ gun and artillery].

e) A disciplined and well organized colonial army helped to defeat African resistances.

f) The ineffectiveness of African beliefs was another factor that brought about their defeat.

g) Religious division created serious problems for African unity.

h) The stable economic state of the colonial power made the victory likely.


African resistance had significance to African history although they were feared but they show that Africans were not ready to be colonized.

1) Primary resistance helped to shape the environment of later African politics because of their impacts upon the thinking and actions of the colonial authorities.

2) Primary resistance displayed African grievances to the Europeans.

3) Primary resistance brought about the collapse of the commercial companies which were at 1st employed by the Germans and the British to open East African spheres of influence.

4) Primary resistance showed Europeans that Africans were not willing to be colonized by Europeans. They wanted to remain with their traditional ways of living.

5) Primary resistance forced Europeans to change the method of ruling Africans; for example in Tanganyika after the Majimaji war the Germans made changes in their way of ruling including in land ownership, taxation and whipping people in public.

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