Mfecane were wondering wars among the clans of the Ngoni speakers in Natal between the coast of Indian Ocean and the Drankers Burg Mountains of South Africa.
Sometimes Mfecane is referred as Difeqane or Mfetsane. The famous Ngoni clan groups were;
- Zulu clan under
- Mthethwa under
- Ngwane under Sobhuza.
- Ndwandwe under
- Need for land – Zulu needed more land for farming and
- Rise of Zulu – Shaka fights the other clans in order to expand his kingdom.
- Population growth in Natal causes conflict.
- Clans denied expanding boundaries in order to make a large
- Expansion of Boers from cape to Natal.
- Depopulation in Natal because of
- Empire building e.g. Ndebele Empire under Msilikazi in Zimbabwe, and Ngoni under
- Mfecane caused insecurity because of
- Mfecane helped the Boer to settle in large areas.
- Caused destruction of properties, crops and buildings.
- The rise of defensive kingdoms e.g. Basulo, Swazi and Bapendi